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a 



wor a ot grandeur 
is spread before us!" 

John Wesley Powell 




CAMPSITE. Painting by Dean Fausett 



This year our nation honors the 100th 
anniversary of Major John Wesley Powell's 
first expedition down the Green and Colo- 
rado rivers. The scene above recreates 
Powell's campsite in the depths of Marble 
Canyon of the Colorado. 

Terracor, to commemorate Powell's jour- 
ney, commissioned a series of eight paint- 
ings of the Great American Southwest by 
nationally-noted artist (and Utah native) 
Dean Fausett. These paintings, including 
the one above, will be on permanent dis- 
play in Terracor's new home office, the 
renovated Keith Mansion on South Temple 
in Salt Lake City. 

The majesty and color of Utah's South- 
west, which the artist depicts, is the land 
in which Terracor recently began an adven- 
ture in creating Utah's first planned recre- 
ational community— Bloomington Ranches/ 
Country Club. Here, near historic St. 
George, the Terracor planners have devel- 
oped a unique and totally pleasant living 
environment that provides for the active life 
of today, yet respects and enhances the 
beauty of this great land. 

Terracor takes pride in being a part of 
the growing West. You can be assured that 
in any development of which Terracor has 
a part, the heritage of this magnificent 
country shall be revered. 



e 



BL OMINGTON 

RANCHES/COUNTRY CLUB 

ST. GEORGE, UTAH 

TERRACOR A concept of things as they should be. 

For information write: 

Bloomington, 529 East South Temple 

Salt Latie City, Utah 84102 



On the cover: 

Few events recorded in the Book of Mor- 
mon have engendered in the book's readers 
as much fascination and creative imagination 
as have the circumstances surrounding the 
burying of the plates of Moroni about the 
year 421 A.D. 

Poets, dramatists, scholars, numerous 
writers, and now an artist have attempted 
to describe the event. However, few word 
descriptions will be as memorable as the 
recently completed painting of Moroni re- 
produced on this month's cover. The paint- 
ing, commissioned by the Church, is by a 
well-known American illustrator, Tom Lovel!, 
and will be used in Church visitors centers 
throughout the world. It is also probably 
destined for popular and permanent use by 
Latter-day Saints in their discussions of 
Moroni's mission of hiding the Nephite rec- 
ords in Hill Cumorah. 

With the completion of this painting, Mr. 
Lovell has painted perhaps the most famous 
father-son combination in Book of Mormon 
history: Mormon and Moroni. In April 1968, 
the Era carried on its cover and reproduced 
inside the issue a painting of Mormon by 
Mr. Lovell. Careful observers will note that 
the artist has given Moroni the bracelet worn 
by Mormon in the earlier painting, suggesting 
the father-son relationship of the two prophet- 
historian-warriors. 




October 1969 




The Voice of the Church • October 1969 • Volume 72, Number 10 

Special Features 

2 Editor's Page: I Am Most Grateful, President David 0. McKay 

4 Christian Love, John W. Bennion 

8 An Australian Family's Journey to the Temple, Isobel Johnson 

11 John Longden, 1898-1969 
18 Moroni, Richard J. Marshall 

21 Bring on the Grandparents! Bill R. Under 

26 A Walk With Fear, Garth Geddes 

28 "Everything and One," Dale Quinlan 

68 The Return of a Dropout, An Anonymous Church Member 

72 How to Have Fun Making History, Glen F. Stillwell 

85 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 8, Facsimile No. 1, by 
the Figures (continued), Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

12 Melchizedek Priesthood Page: How to Evaluate Your Performance 
(Part 1), Elder Spencer W. Kimball 

39 The LDS Scene 

56 Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About 

Their Bishop, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

60 Today's Family: Soup's On, Eleanor Knowles 

64 Family Table Talk, Annie Laurie Von Tungeln 

74 Buffs and Rebuffs 

76 Genealogy: Genealogy, the Great Equalizer, David H. Pratt 

78 The Church Moves On 

80 These Times: Moon Message, 1969, Dr. G. Homer Durham 

96 End of an Era 

16, 37, 73, 77 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 

Era of Youth 

43-54 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

30 In the Season Thereof, Amy Hillyard Jensen 
10, 20, 37, 67, 71, 75 Poetry 



David 0. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor; Albert L. Zabell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd, 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph 
Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Circulation Manager; 
Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representatives. G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr.. Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, 
Contributing Editors. 

© General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1969, and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 

multiple subscriptions, 2 years, $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 35£ single copy except for special 

issues. 

Entered at the Past Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be 

accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address label from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 

changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, 
Music Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 




The Editor's Rage 



By President David O. McKay 



I Am Most 



• As the harvest season closes, I am 
thankful to know that members of the 
Church, and so many people generally, 
realizing the fact that material possessions 
alone do not give happiness, are appreciating 
more than ever before those things which 
are of most value. I am happy to enjoy with 
my friends these most worthwhile posses- 
sions. To name only a few, I would say that 
I am most grateful: 

1. For a noble parentage and a worthy 
name. 

The family gives to the child his name 
and standing in the community. A child 
wants his family to be as good as families of 
his friends. He wants to be able to point 
with pride to his father, and to feel an in- 
spiration every time he looks at his mother. 
It is a mother's duty so to live that her 
children will associate with her everything 
that is beautiful, sweet, and pure. It is a 
father's duty so to conduct his life as to be 
able to give his sons a good name. 

Example is more potent than precept. 
Parents have the duty to be what they would 
have their children become. I am most grate- 
ful that such parents were mine. 

2. For an abiding faith in a supreme 
being and in the divinity of Jesus Christ. 



Faith in God cannot, of course, be other 
than personal. It must be yours; it must be 
mine; and, to be effective, it must spring 
from the mind and heart. It is in this sense 
that I refer to faith in Christ* as the most 
important need of the world— a belief that 
determines a man's religion and his goals. It 
is a power that moves to action and should 
be in human life the most basic of all moti- 
vating forces. 

To him who accepts Jesus of Nazareth as 
the very Son of God, to him who believes 
with all his soul that Jesus lives today and 
that he can and does influence the world, 
Christ's teachings as well as his personality 
become a reality. 

3. For the ability and opportunities to 
enjoy the gifts of God as manifest in nature. 

All the beautiful things of creation are 
mine merely for the seeing and the seeking. 
I have seen the brilliant colors of the water 
and the earth in the South Seas, and the 
vivid hues of vegetable and animal life there. 
I have marveled at God's bounteous good- 
ness to man as Church assignments have 
taken me to six continents of the earth. And 
I have thrilled as I have taught my sons to 
plow a straight furrow, prepare a proper 
seedbed, plant good seeds, and watch for the 



Improvement Era 



Grateful 

first green spears of the crop to break 
through on my farm at Huntsville, Utah. 
I have stood side by side with them, caring 
for the crop, testing it to see if the individual 
husks were plump and full, watching the 
fields turn golden with harvest, and then 
gathering the harvest, even as my father 
taught me. 

4. For affectionate family relationships — 
loved ones and loyal friends. He who has 
even one friend is rich, and I have many 
who have proved themselves to be true and 
loyal. 

It is man's privilege to be happy as he 
chooses the path that leads to happiness. The 
truest source of happiness is found in the 
family and the home. Homes are made 
permanent through love. Permanent homes 
in which sweet contentment abides are the 
strength of any nation. Even as contented 
individuals living in unselfish and loving 
communion make the homes happy, so con- 
tented, peaceful homes make the progres- 
sive, peaceful community; and groups of 
such communities constitute a peaceful, 
progressive nation. The perpetuity of our 
modern civilization depends upon well- 
ordered, well-governed homes. 

Life at its best consists in keeping the body 



pure, the spiritual and physical senses keen 
and appreciative of all things good and 
beautiful; in being able to rejoice in all that 
God has given us; in having friends, and 
being a friend, as well as having families. 

5. For opportunities to render helpful 
service in the Church of Christ, and above 
all, for the knowledge that a kind and loving 
Father will give helpful guidance to all who 
seek him in sincerity. 

The most worthy calling in life is that in 
which man can best serve his fellowman. 
The noblest aim in life is to strive to make 
other lives better and happier. Service and 
character are the only two things that we 
can take with us when we leave this world. 
Can you think of any organization in which 
you can serve more effectively in an or- 
ganized way than in The Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints? But, to be 
most effective, we must always seek the 
assistance of our Heavenly Father through 
humble and sincere prayer. He is interested 
in the work of the Church here upon the 
earth, and in those of us who do the work 
as his servants. 

For these and many other blessings, my 
heart is full of gratitude, and I am most 
grateful. O 



October 1969 




Christian Love 

By John W. Bennion 

• The most distinguishing characteristic of a Latter- 
day Saint ought to be his love for his fellowmen. 
Jesus taught that love for God and man is the 
greatest commandment, and the apostle Paul empha- 
sized that nothing can compensate for the lack of 
charity. 

The meaning of Christian love is not as clear as 
some of the more concrete principles, such as tith- 
ing, the Word of Wisdom, or fasting. Part of the 
difficulty stems from the fact that there are differ- 
ent kinds of love. Most of us would agree, for exam- 
ple, that Christian love is not the same as the powerful 
emotional and physical attraction that a man and 
woman have for each other when they are "deeply 
in love." 

There is a tendency, however, for people to think 
that Christian love is akin to friendship or family 



John W. Bennion, first counselor in the Rochester (New 
York) Ward, is superintendent of Brighton Central School 
District and has held Church and professional positions 
in Illinois and Ohio. 



love. We have positive, warm, intimate feelings for 
family and friends based on common experiences, 
values, and special attachments. If we suppose that 
to have Christian love means that we have the kind 
of feeling toward all men that we do toward our 
family and friends, then the principle seems far too 
idealistic for most of us. How, then, can we love our 
enemies in the same way that we love our loved 
ones? How can we have warm, intimate feelings 
toward those who are indifferent or hostile to us? 

Christian love is not the same thing as friendship 
or family love. It is based not on feeling, but on an 
act of the will. We are much better able to control 
our will than we are our feelings. We may not be 
able to generate warm, positive feelings toward those 
who hate us and spitefully use us, but we can exer- 
cise goodwill toward them. Having goodwill means 
that we have committed ourselves to act in the best 
interest of other human beings regardless of our feel- 
ings toward them. Our commitment is based on a 
belief that every person is an immortal child of 



Improvement Era 




God with great potential for moral, spiritual, and 
intellectual growth. Each person, therefore, is of in- 
calculable worth not only for what he is but for what 
he has the potential to become. 

All Latter-day Saints should have a profound re- 
spect for the worth and dignity of every human soul, 
even though we may be saddened by what some 
people are currently doing to themselves or to others. 
In embracing the gospel, we have committed our- 
selves to do all we can to help each child of God 
realize his full potential. This commitment is the 
basis for universal goodwill. To me it seems that we 
discipline our will to act in the interest of others and 
for their good even though we may not have warm, 
intimate feelings for them. Our feelings may even 
be negative at times when we are confronted with 
hostile, hateful, unlovable people. The point is that 
we can and should exercise Christian love or good- 
will in their behalf even though we may not like 
them as we do our friends and people to whom we 
are naturally attracted. 



To illustrate the point, let us consider the rela- 
tionship of a good mother toward her children. The 
mother is deeply committed to the welfare of her 
children. She attempts always to act in what she 
believes to be their best interest. Her feelings to- 
ward them are usually very warm and positive, but 
the best of mothers have their moments of exaspera- 
tion and anger. Feelings are never constant, and 
children are sometimes a trial. They may be suc- 
cessful in provoking negative feelings from time to 
time in even the most loving mothers. Yet a good 
mother does not cease to respond to the needs of 
her children when she is exasperated, frustrated, or 
angered, Her behavior is still guided by her sense of 
responsibility for their well-being, regardless of how 
she may feel toward them at any given moment. 
When they are hungry, she feeds them. If they 
are hurt or in danger, she comes to their aid. 

Another example is the relationship between a 
highly professional doctor, lawyer, or teacher and 
his client. When we go to the doctor, we do not 



October 1969 




expect the quality of his service to be dependent on 
whether he likes us. We expect him to give us the 
benefit of all the expertise at his command, regard- 
less of whether or not he is personally attracted to 
us. Likewise, we expect teachers of our children to 
be deeply concerned with and responsive to the 
children's educational needs even though they 
naturally have warmer feelings toward some children 
than others. This is one of the characteristics of a 
highly professional person. He can separate his feel- 
ings from his professional commitment and act in 
the best interest of his client regardless of his feel- 
ings. In learning to exercise goodwill, we can do the 
same .toward all who come within our realm of influ- 
ence and, in so doing, make Christian love a reality 
in our lives. 

A frequent by-product of goodwill is the growth of 
warm, positive feelings in us and in the recipients 
of our goodwill. When we exercise goodwill toward 
the indifferent, hostile, or hateful person, he some- 
times changes his attitude and begins to respond to 



us in kind. Such an outcome is always encouraging, 
but we must remember that it doesn't always turn 
out that way, and our continued goodwill should in 
no way be dependent upon a reciprocal response. 
Friendship is necessarily reciprocal; goodwill is not. 
Sometimes we feel better about a person when we 
exercise goodwill in his behalf even if he does not 
respond favorably. Christian love depends on neither 
our feelings nor the feelings of the recipient of our 
love. It is an act of the will, not an emotional re- 
sponse. Paul expressed the spirit of Christian love 
when he told the Romans to have equal regard for 
one another, and to be associated with persons who 
are humble. They were told to let their aims be such 
that all men would be considered honorable. 

As we attempt to more fully incorporate the 
principle of Christian love in our lives, there are 
some pitfalls that we should be careful to avoid. 
One of these is the tendency to exercise goodwill in 
the abstract but not in the concrete. This does not 
have the desired impact and can mislead us into 



Improvement Era 




thinking that we are living the principle when in 
reality we are not. 

Our sense of goodwill toward mankind, for exam- 
ple, is not very meaningful if we do not exercise 
goodwill toward individual people with whom we 
come in contact in the neighborhood, at work, or in 
church. There are those who give lip service to the 
great value of education but who do nothing to sup- 
port and help to improve the local schools. Others 
proclaim their love of country but are indifferent to 
their obligations as citizens by failing to inform 
themselves on the issues and candidates, and to vote. 

Some of us speak of our love for the Church but 
do little at the concrete level by way of sharing our 
time, energy, and talents with our brothers and 
sisters. It is a temptation and source of self-decep- 
tion to exercise goodwill at the abstract level but 
fail to make the concrete application. 

Another serious barrier to Christian love is the 
tendency we have to be selective in exercising good- 
will. It is often too dependent on such factors as 



common religion, race, citizenship, social class, and 
level of education. When such is the case, it is an 
indication that our goodwill is not sufficiently 
grounded in the conviction of the inherent worth 
and value of every human soul. Indeed, if our good- 
will is limited to people with whom we have certain 
things in common, it is not Christian love. We are 
naturally attracted to certain groups with whom we 
have much in common. So is everyone else. There 
is nothing wrong with this, but we should not mistake 
it for Christian love. 

Christian love is a great challenge and lifelong 
quest. To be able to exercise goodwill on the basis 
of need alone is our goal. Such behavior will surely 
be a prerequisite for living in a celestial society. We 
begin to learn and practice goodwill in the home and 
in church, but the ultimate test is our behavior 
whenever we meet the stranger, the unlovable, the 
bearer of ill will. Our conviction of the universal 
fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man should be 
strong enough to enable us to meet the test. O 



October 1969 




. : 



■£/■ dM^ - 



An Australian Family's 
Journey to theTemple 



By Isobel Johnson 



• Our destination that Australian 
summer (December 1960) was the 
New Zealand Temple, a journey 
that would take us five weeks from 
our home near Perth, in Western 
Australia, clear across the conti- 
nent and the Tasman Sea. 

It was amazing how the money 
became available at the last mo- 
ment. This was a vitally important 
trip for our family. When the day 
Of departure dawned, everything 
possible was packed into the van, 
and the children were climbing 
aboard, with the usual amount of 



noise and excitement one would ex- 
pect from boys ( ages 9 and 4 ) and 
girls (ages 8 and 5). We were 
really on our way! 

That night we were 300 miles 
from Perth, heading east. Three of 
the children slept in the van, 
cramped in among suitcases, boxes 
of food, and drums of fuel and 
water. This was to be our home 
for the next week, day and night. 
As we drove we played guessing 
games, counting rabbits that ran 
across the road during the day, or 
perhaps counting kangaroos hop- 



ping across in front of the head- 
lights at night. 

As we penetrated farther east, 
leaving even the wheat-belt towns 
behind, we felt the weight of re- 
sponsibility become heavier. The 
bitumen road had now ended, and 
the first 100-mile stretch of gravel 
or graded earthen road was corru- 
gated, creating discomfort. 

An occasional vehicle was seen, 
often a heavy transport truck 
traveling in the opposite direction. 
This became part of another game. 
First, we would notice a thick 



Improvement Era 



cloud of dust in the distance, to 
match the thick cloud that was 
swirling out behind our own ve- 
hicle. Whoever saw the approach- 
ing vehicle first would call out 
"S potto," and then we would close 
the front air vent until we had 
passed it. 

We left the last stop before 
crossing the border between West- 
ern Australia and South Australia. 
With a full tank of petrol, vital 
parts of the vehicle checked, and 
spare petrol drums filled, it was 
time to press on again. 

Those incessant miles made it 
necessary for my wife or me to 
drive while the other tried to sleep, 
propped up in the corner, with 
heavy eyes closed, but still feeling 
every pothole and bump. 

Then the scenery changed. We 
saw fewer trees. We had reached 
our point of no return. How many 
more hundreds of miles of this un- 
sealed road? Too far to go all that 
way back again! We must keep 
driving. The early Latter-day Saint 
pioneers in America didn't have 
1960 model vehicles for their long 
journey; after all, we had to travel 
only 3,000 miles, and the weather 
was good for December, not as hot 
as we had expected. 

The Nullarbor Plain ( meaning no 
trees ) was well named. Low salt- 
bush was now the familiar sight; 
put the left window, out the right 
window, away in the distance 
where the track disappeared on the 
horizon, and everywhere— saltbush. 

We took turns driving, stopping 
only to empty drums of petrol into 
the petrol tank, or to check tires 
and feel hot brake drums. We had 
had the bottom of the car sprayed 
with proofcoating for rust preven- 



tion, and this saved us from having 
our petrol tank damaged by flying 
rocks, which was the fate of many 
motorists. 

We had been very fortunate to 
have had little car trouble, being 
held up only once on this account. 
Suddenly we had no brakes! We 
rolled to a stop, looked around 
helplessly, then peered through 
some trees where a little side track 
led from the road. There in the 
middle of nowhere was a service 
station! 

After what seemed an age, we 
arrived safely at Port Augusta, 
where we met the bitumen-sealed 
road again, then on south to Ade- 
laide, the capital city of South 
Australia. It was midnight about 
the fourth night when we arrived 
at Adelaide. We were over the 
worst and now had good roads to 
travel, but we still had over 1,000 
miles to go to Sydney. 

The next evening we enjoyed 
driving our car onto a barge, which 
floated across a river; then on 
again we went, mile upon mile. We 
knew Australia was big, but we 
hadn't realized it was this big! 

There was only one thing that 
kept us from dreading the return 
journey, and that was the thought 
of our wonderful experiences to 
come. We were on our way to a 
temple of the Lord. 

Upon arriving in Sydney on 
Christmas Day, we left our ve- 
hicle at a friend's house and jour- 
neyed by taxi to the airport. It 
certainly took longer to travel the 
suburbs in this larger city than it 
did back home in Perth. Why did 
the taxi driver take so long to reach 
the airport? As we finally stepped 
from the taxi at the airport, we 



Isobel Johnson, active in genealogy and music, is the mother of four and 
the wife of Bishop Raymond Johnson of the Perth (Australia) Second Ward. 
She has an interesting background: former sprinter who decided against the 
Helsinki games, holder of the Australian altitude record for a specific light 
aircraft (17,000 feet), and partner with her husband in a gold mine before 
giving it up because of "the intense heat and numerous 'death adder' snakes." 



were greeted by officials. "Are you 
the Johnsons?" they asked. We 
could see that the engines of our 
aircraft were already going, and 
no other passengers were in sight. 
The aircraft had actually waited 
for us. No mechanical failure had 
prevented us from completing the 
trip right across Australia from 
west to east, and no aircraft was 
going to take off for New Zealand 
without us, for we had told our 
mission president that we would 
attend the temple that year, even 
though at the time we didn't have 
the price of our fares. We knew we 
must get to the temple, even if it 
meant selling many things and 
making many sacrifices. 

In New Zealand we traveled 
south by bus from Auckland to 
Hamilton, and then four miles west 
to Temple View, arriving there in 
the evening. What a glorious 
sight! There was the temple! We 
had made it! It stood beautifully 
floodlit as if glowing from within, 
and our hearts were full of appre- 
ciation and thanksgiving. Our 
breath was literally caught by the 
simple beauty of it. The next three 
weeks were wonderful and quite 
indescribable. We were so glad we 
had come. Now we had been 
sealed as a family, not only for 
time, but for all eternity. Heavenly 
Father had been very good to us. 
Our old days held lovely and excit- 
ing memories, but never was there 
such peace as the gospel brings, 
and now to have been to the tem- 
ple as a family, and to have re- 
ceived our patriarchal blessings, 
was to be blessed indeed. 

With this lovely feeling of con- 
tentment, we left New Zealand. We 
collected our vehicle in Sydney and 
started on our return journey across 
Australia. There was much quiet 
thinking. The temple ordinances 
could not be discussed, yet they 
should not be forgotten. With so 
much driving before us, it was pos- 
sible to contemplate greatly on the 



October 1969 



events of the past few weeks and 
to prepare ourselves for an even 
greater dedication upon our return 
home. 

We were now well on the way; 
we had by-passed Adelaide and 
gone on to Port Augusta, where the 
bitumen ended. Now it was un- 
sealed road again. 

Unexpectedly the temperature 
began to rise, and by the next day 
it had reached 100 degrees. The 
van had no lining inside the roof, 
and as we were loaded up, there 
was little air gap left. The miles 
stretched out. As we reached that 
point of no return again, the 
temperature was still climbing. The 
thermometer in the van went up to 
102, 105, 108. Mirages were some- 
times seen, and a constant shimmer 
of heat also rose from the bonnet of 
the car in front of the windscreen. 
Our faces became redder. Perspira- 
tion dripped from the tips of our 
noses and off our chins. 

The temperature reached 110 de- 
grees. We must stop! But no— the 
engine would be damaged and the 
van would heat up even more. The 
temperature rose to 111, then 112. 
If only we could open a window! 
Even if the air was hot outside, 
we might get a breeze of some sort 
from our movement. The dust 
still clouded out behind us. We had 
sealed all the back up with masking 
tape, but as we opened a front 
window, fine dust was sucked in. 
We coughed and choked, and the 
dust settled in our throats and on 
our perspiring faces. We quickly 



closed the windows again but 
didn't dare to stop the van, as the 
huge cloud of dust would have 
caught up with us and enveloped 
us. 

We kept on, opening up the front 
vent again. The accelerator pedal 
burned our feet so we had to cover 
it with wet towels. It was a con- 
stant job wiping the faces of the 
children, who were dazed and red 
and needed plenty of water. 

Then the temperature climbed to 
113 and finally 114. I don't remem- 
ber looking at it after that. We 
were being cooked under the metal 
roof, but while the vehicle was 
still running smoothly, we had to 
keep right on. 

We had left New Zealand so 
cool and green on January 16, and 
we knew that we were likely to 
strike a heat wave on the Nullar- 
bor Plain at this time of year. We 
didn't expect it to be 114 degrees, 
though. 

I opened up our hymnbook and 
it fell open at Number 170. With a 
wet, red face, sore eyes, and dry 
throat, I began to sing, "Dearest 
children, God is near you, Watching 
o'er you day and night." 

As night fell and the temperature 
dropped, the children slept; but my 
wife and I had to take turns in 
driving for fear of being caught in 
another heat wave the next day. We 
drove with one eye open, while 
holding a wet towel to the other 
eye to refresh it. Then we would 
open that eye and refresh the other. 

One night we arrived at a small 



town at 1 a.m., and we decided we 
must both sleep. The next morning 
at dawn we continued on. 

After we crossed the West Aus- 
tralia border, we ran out of bottled 
water. Because of the recent weeks 
of dry weather, a few roadside 
tanks were dry. We had a big 
emergency water tank in the back 
of the van, so we pulled off all 
the masking tape and opened up 
the back door. Because of the 
bumpy, potholed roads, the water 
had become stirred up. Apparently 
there was some rust on the inside 
of the tank, because when we 
poured the water, we found it to 
be very thick and rusty in color. 
But we had to have water to con- 
tinue our journey, so we used 
towels to strain it, then mixed it 
with a bottle of lemon cordial to 
conceal the taste. 

At last we reached the bitumen 
sealed road again, and the first 
proper town where clean water and 
hot showers were available. We 
were only 450 miles from home— 
with 450 miles of good road ahead! 

Four years later we returned to 
the temple, again overland, but 
this time in a lined station sedan 
and without the children. 

There is no other place on earth 
to equal the temples of our Lord. 
To visit one of them is worth any 
necessary sacrifice. Our spiritual 
and material blessings now far ex- 
ceed anything we have sacrificed 
or any discomfort we have experi- 
enced in our journeys to the 
temple. O 



An Inner Core of Certainty 
By Evalyn M. Sandberg 



Somewhere 
in the deep 
recesses of the soul 
is stillness. 
It lies there, 
perennially quiet, 
regardless of the 
pitch or pace 



of outward circumstance. 

As with the 

kinesthetic sense, 

we may not know its nature 

or exact location. 

We only know 

its function: 

balance. 



10 



Improvement Era 



Elder 
John Lonsden 




1898-1969 



# "I am young in spirit and can see the problems of 
the other fellow. My leanings have always been to- 
ward a missionary life, and I do feel that now, as never 
before, there is an excellent opportunity to preach the 
gospel. I have seen my own child laid away, have 
lost one home in the last depression, and numerous 
other things have happened to me which have cer- 
tainly made me sure of the true values in life, so I do 
feel that if given the opportunity, I could help bring 
satisfaction, solace, and perhaps a little happiness to 
the lives of others." 

So wrote John Longden in May 1942. This attitude 
had charted his life for 43 years, and it was to guide 
him the remaining 27. Elder Longden, Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve, died August 30, 1969, at 
his Salt Lake City home. He was 70 years old. 

Elder Longden was born in Oldham, Lancashire, 
England, November 4, 1898, to Thomas J. and Lizetta 
Taylor Longden. When he was ten years old, the 
family, converts to the Church, immigrated to Utah. 
He attended LDS High School, worked part-time as 
a cash boy at ZCMI, studied at LDS Business College 
and the University of Utah, and took correspondence 
courses in business law. His interests and natural 
ability in music and drama motivated him to study 
voice, violin, and drama. In time he was on stage 
throughout Utah and Idaho, playing juvenile and 
character parts, singing, and playing the violin. 

In 1921 he accepted a call to the Central States 
Mission, where he presided over the North Texas ' 
Conference. Returning home in 1924, he became an 
assistant MIA superintendent in the Salt Lake Stake, 
began work as a life insurance salesman, and married 
Frances LaRue Carr in the Salt Lake Temple. 

A year later he was called as bishop to the Nine- 
teenth Ward, where he served for five years. During 
those years he changed his employment to electrical 
sales, a field in which he labored until he retired in 
1960. He served as a sales representative for General 
Electric Company and Utah Power and Light Com- 
pany, area manager of Westinghouse Electric Supply 
Company, and area manager of National Electric 
Products Corporation. 

He and Sister Longden were blessed with three 
daughters. The firstborn, Helen Margaret, passed 
away in childhood. The two other daughters are 
Mrs. Grant (Gail) Hickman and Mrs. Loren C. 



(Sharon) Dunn. They and their eight children have 
given much joy to the Longdens. 

The couple's great support of youth activities found 
constant use in the Church. Sister Longden served 
13 years in the general presidency of the Young 
Women's Mutual Improvement Association. Brother 
Longden served as assistant superintendent of the 
MIA in the Yale Ward; later he was called to the 
high council in the Salt Lake and Highland stakes. 
During World War II, he served as assistant service- 
men's coordinator in the Salt Lake City, Boise, and 
Las Vegas areas, and at Bushnell General Hospital, 
Brigham City, Utah. 

In May 1950, he was appointed a member of the 
General Church Welfare Committee, and on October 6, 
1951, he was sustained as an Assistant to the Council 
of the Twelve. He had been known in the Salt Lake 
City area for his generosity in sharing his musical 
and speaking abilities through singing and speaking 
at funerals and Church gatherings. These same abili- 
ties were now to be shared Churchwide. 

Among his general Church assignments were super- 
vision of Church units in eastern Canada and Alaska, 
the islands of the Pacific, and most recently the 
British Isles. At the Tabernacle pulpit during gen- 
eral conference, he once reflected how he had at- 
tended meetings in a little corrugated, galvanized 
meetinghouse in Oldham, and then, 56 years later, 
he had gone again to Oldham to dedicate a beautiful 
modern chapel. 

Active in civic affairs, he served as vice-president 
of the Salt Lake Rotary and president of the Bonne- 
ville Knife and Fork Club, and was a member of the 
Salt Lake Country Club and Alta Club. He also 
served a term as president of the Intermountain 
Electrical Association, as a director of the area Red 
Cross, and for 20 years as a member of the appeal 
board of District 2 of the Selective Service. 

Funeral services on September 3, in the Assembly 
Hall on Temple Square, were under the direction of 
the First Presidency. Speakers at the funeral noted 
that Elder Longden would long be remembered for 
his gentlemanly manner, his "rules of conduct for 
missionaries," and his behavior in expressing his firm 
belief, that people of all races and creeds are the 
children of God. 

He will be genuinely missed. o 



October 1969 



11 





• One's performance is 
successful if he achieves 
what he has planned to 
accomplish. There is an 
old saying: "The proof of 
the pudding is in the 
eating of it." 

In approaching a pro- 
gram or a project, one 
would naturally establish 
for himself his objective. 
What does he wish to ac- 
complish? This would be 
true whether his objec- 
tives were good or bad. 



Guidelines on how 

to determine your 

effectiveness in your 

Church calling 




HowtoEv 




changes it to excite pas- 
sion and lewdness. He 
uses sacred things to di- 
vert. He uses every teach- 
ing art to subvert man. 

And so our objective is 
basic. Is it to claim the 
mind and body of man 
and enslave him, or is it to 
take him as we find him 
and give him freedom to 
pursue his path to god- 
hood? 

In our work there are 
other questions we should 



Satan can perhaps give us examples of efficiency. He answer. Are our motives pure? Is our total purpose 
really motivates. He has established and stated his lofty? Are we free from pride or other selfishness? 
overall objective. It is his plan to divert every soul, What is the end result desired? Is it to encourage to- 



and to degrade him and enslave him. To that end, the 
arch deceiver has studied every way possible to 
achieve his ends, using every tool, every device pos- 
sible. He takes over, distorts, and changes and camou- 
flages everything created for the good of man, to 
make it desirable to men so he may take over their 
minds and pervert their bodies and claim them his. 

He never sleeps— he is diligent and persevering. He 
analyzes carefully his problem and then moves for- 
ward diligently, methodically to reach that objective. 



ward repentance? Is it to improve relationships? Is 
it to restore confidence? Is it to build faith? Is it to 
develop character? Is it to create personality? Is it 
to cause people to change direction? Is it to improve 
the crops on one's farm? Or upgrade the livestock? 
Is it to build a better car? Is it to sell more insurance 
or commodities? 

Is it to increase spirituality? Is it to transform the 
sinner to sainthood? No matter what the objective 
may be, the success of the undertaking should be 



He uses all five senses and man's natural hunger and judged by the results obtained. 

thirst to lead him away. He anticipates resistance and Certainly, in the evaluating process, one must be 

fortifies himself against it. He uses time and space purposeful. He must know where he is going. The 



and leisure. He is constant and persuasive and skill- 
ful. He uses such useful things as radio, television, 
the printed page, the airplane, and the car to distort 
and damage. He uses the gregariousness of man, his 
loneliness, his every need to lead him astray. He 



Lord revealed: "Wherefore, now let every man learn 
his duty. . . ." Until he knows what is properly ex- 
pected of him, how can he begin to judge his effec- 
tiveness? The scripture continues: 

"... and to act in the office in which he is appointed, 



does his work at the most propitious time in the most in all diligence. 



impressive places with the most influential people. 
He overlooks nothing that will deceive and distort and 
prostitute. He uses money, power, force. He entices 
man and attacks at his weakest spot. He takes the 
good and creates ugliness. He takes beautiful art and 
gives it sensualness. He takes divine music and 



"He that is slothful shall not be counted worthy to 
stand, and he that learns not his duty and shows him- 
self not approved shall not be counted worthy to stand. 
Even so. Amen." (D&C 107:99-100.) 

In order that we may be worthy to stand, we must 
determine if our assignment is worthy and if an ap- 




12 



Improvement Era 



By Elder Spencer W. Kimball 

Of the Council of the Twelve 

(Part I) 



aluate Your Performance 





praisal of it is appropriate. So often there are those 
who see themselves as "serving time" in a church 
position, so that the idea of evaluation itself is never 
made legitimate. 

It is hard to put one's heart into a program that 
to him seems futile. I knew of one father with many 
sons who desired to keep them busy; and when he 
ran out of productive work for them, it is said he had 
them dig a ditch and then fill it in. If this were felt 
by the boys to be futile, they would be unhappy, and 
they would wonder about other jobs— if they were 
necessary. 

Sincerity is important. If one believes his work is 
vital, his enthusiasm for it and his vigor will tend to 
create an acceptance of it. 

For us to feel justified about our earthly work— the 
way Jesus did when he said, "It is finished" (John 
19:30), ". . . now behold, my joy is full" (3 Nephi 
17:20)— implies the existence of specific criteria 
against which we can actually determine not only 
when we have finished but how much we have 
achieved and are achieving. 

We ascertain and establish acceptable standards of 
excellence in a given field and measure our work ac- 
cordingly. We should be less interested in excelling 
others but more concerned with excelling our own past 
records and using our established ideal standards and 
perfection as our goals and the measurement of our 
attainments and our degree of progress. 

The criteria wc can apply to ourselves grow out of 
several sources: 

1. One criterion involves the formal requirements of 
the position as contained in handbooks or manuals. 
These are too often ignored in the call and hence 
thereafter. Often expensive long-distance calls are 
made to ask questions that are answered clearly in the 
handbook. 

It is expected that handbooks will enumerate in 
proper sequence the things to do without elaboration 
or supporting material or reasons. Anyone can follow 
the handbook, but many fail to use this important 
method of appraising efforts. 

2. There are the specific and general goals and 



duties given us in the scriptures that pertain to our 
callings. For example: 

As we build toward spirituality, the scripture says 
we must teach by the Spirit: ". . . and if ye receive not 
the Spirit ye shall not teach." (D&C 42:14.) 

Again, a specific instruction: "... I command you, 
all ye my saints, to build a house unto me. . . ." This 
scripture says to send messengers and to come with 
your gold, silver, precious stones and antiquities, box 
trees, fir trees, and pine trees, and "build a house 
unto me. . . ." (D&C 124:31.) 

Concerning baptism, the scripture says: "All those 
who humble themselves before Cod, and desire to 

be baptized, and come 
_«, forth with broken hearts 

and contrite spirits, and 
witness before the church 
that they have truly re- 
pented of all their sins, 
and are willing to take 
upon them the name of 
Jesus Christ, having a de- 
termination to serve him 
to the end, and truly man- 
ifest by their works that 
they have received of the 
Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins, shall 
be received by baptism into his church." (D&C 20:37.) 
And concerning the duty of the teacher: he must 
"watch over the church always, and be with and 
strengthen them; And see that there is no iniquity 
in the church, neither hardness with each other, neither 
lying, backbiting, nor evil speaking; And see that the 
church meet together often, and also see that all 
members do their duty." (D&C 20:53-55.) 

3. An appraisal or evaluation may involve the ele- 
ment of time: How much of my time, myself, and my 
talent are being effectively used in my calling— ade- 
quate or too little? 

There are extra tests of our performance we assess 
against ourselves, knowing how much talent and 
effort we are truly applying in relation to what we 
can bring to bear on our assignment. Often, by re- 





October 1969 



13 



fr 



'We should be less interested in excelling others— more interested in 



fusing to make concrete and to apply the above 
criteria, we simply develop random attitudes and 
feelings— sometimes unjustifiably reassuring and un- 
justifiably self-condemnatory; we do not really test 
ourselves objectively. 

4. There are the extra charges or mandates given 
to us by the individual who made the call and the 
things expected and wanted. 

There are at least three steps in the making of a 
call: (a) the call itself, (b) the interview determining 
worthiness, and (c) the job description indicating 
what is expected within the call. 

The leader invites into his office the person se- 
lected for a position. As he makes the call, he de- 
fines the position and its relationships; second, he will 
interview, determining the willingness, availability, 
and worthiness of the individual; third, he will give a 
job description, indicating what is required— in some 
areas, this is called the charge. 

There are situational calls and charges in which the 
demands of the situation may go beyond the above 
criteria. 

A certain man was recommended to be a bishop, 
not only to do the regular work of a bishop but also 
to use his promotion abilities in raising money and 
building a much-needed chapel structure. In the call, 
this would be made clear and his success would be 
judged by his achievement in all of the items men- 
tioned in the call and interview. 

There could be extra charges given to the individual, 
as in the call of a high councilor who had been a 
very successful agriculturist and who was asked to 
give special attention to a welfare farm or project. 

There could be a call to a missionary couple who 
would go to a given mission where they would pick 
up the crumbling parts of a branch that was failing. 

We assess the extra tests of our performance against 
ourselves, knowing how much talent and effort we 
are truly applying in relation to what we can bring 
to bear on our assignment. Here, one might have 
hidden talents that had never been brought out in 
public and that he himself was conscious of and could 
bring to bear upon the assignment. For example, a 
new family might move into an impoverished branch 
in a mission where there was no choir and no ac- 
complished organist; one talented musician in the 
family, whose talents were unknown to the branch, 
would find a way in total propriety to let the talents 
be known. 




Often by refusing to make concrete and apply the 
above criteria, we simply develop random attitudes 
and random feelings— sometimes unjustifiably reas- 
suring or unjustifiably self- condemnatory— and thus 
we do not test ourselves objectively and, therefore, we 
fall short of the mark. 

We can often increase our awareness of our rela- 
tive effectiveness by sharing in appropriate ways the 
evaluation with those who direct us, such as em- 
ployers, counselors, co-workers, and spouses. By 
opening the door for those about us to look at our 

efforts and talk with us, 
we can gain information 
and reactions that can 
add to the data we must 
include in our evaluation. 
For instance, the feel- 
ing that co-workers may 
have about the poor qual- 
ity of teaching in the quo- 
rum relates directly, in the 
case of a quorum presi- 
dent, to the ability of the 
quorum to build brother- 
hood and identify in the quorum. 

Another example : Jimmie, the yard boy, went to the 
bank and asked the banker whose yard he tended if 
he could have the job working his yard. The banker, 
who did not know the boy, said: "I am sorry, son, but 
I already have a boy doing that work for me." Jimmie 
said, "Is he doing a good job for you?" The banker 
replied, "Oh, yes, his work is very satisfactory. We 
are pleased with his work." Jimmie said, "Thank you. 
I am your yard boy. I just wanted to know if my 
work was satisfactory, to check up on myself." 

A certain bishop went to his stake president and 
indicated he was not being well received and that 
his work was not going forward well. He earnestly 
asked in confidence what his weaknesses were. In 
deep sympathy and understanding, and without 
criticism, the president pointed out that he was too 
brusque, that he was critical from the pulpit, that he 
embarrassed many people who came to him. 

After his interview, there was a decided improve- 
ment in the communications and the relationships of 
the bishop and his people. 

A stake missionary who had many opportunities to 
teach the gospel but seemed never to get a convert 
had a good "truth" session with his mission president 



^ 



14 



Improvement Era 



=^\ 



excelling our own past" 



and learned that he was too general, that he covered 
the whole gospel program and tended to confuse his 
hearer rather than make a definite impression upon a 
specific phase. 

An insurance agent, personable, attractive, with a 
good voice and practically all of the qualifications 
necessary to write insurance, was not getting much 
business on the books. With deep humility, he went 
to his supervisor and asked him why. The supervisor 
accompanied him and then said to him in sincerity 
and confidence, "You talk too much; you convince 
people that the program is good, and then before 
they sign, you talk them out of it. Develop your 
program to a proper conclusion; then seal the deal." 
His work improved. 

We do not know if Moses invited Jethro's construc- 
tive criticism or not, but clearly Moses created a 
climate in which listening really occurred. 

Again, Moses apparently opened the door and per- 
mitted his father-in-law, Jethro, to counsel him, that 
he might be more effective. Moses had taken the 
flock of Jethro to the back side of the desert, and there 
he had his great experience of talking to the Lord 
through the burning bush. Moses had counseled with 
Jethro, asking freedom to return to Egypt in con- 
formity with the instructions given by the Lord. Then 
Moses had accomplished the deliverance act; he re- 
turned to the desert with his father-in-law and became 
the judge of the people and handled their problems- 
marital, moral, spiritual, and financial. But Moses be- 
came overburdened and day and night tied with these 
problem cases, so Jethro came to him and evaluated 
his work, saying: 

"What is this thing that thou doest to the people? 
Why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people 
stand by thee from morning unto even?" 

And then the wise father-in-law said: "The thing 
that thou doest is not good. ' 

"Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this 
people that is with thee: for this thing is too heavy for 
thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone. 

". . . Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou 
mayest bring the causes unto God; 

"And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, 
and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk, 
and the work that they must do. 

"Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people 
able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating 
covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers 



of the thousands and rulers of hundreds, rulers of 
fifties, and rulers of tens: 

"And let them judge the people at all seasons: and 
it shall be that every great matter they shall bring 
unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: 
so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear 
the burden with thee." ( See Exod. 18. ) 

An effective organization came into being, and work 
was delegated. Thus the effectiveness of Moses could 
be greatly enhanced. He could teach all of the people 
and handle the weightier matters for them and thus be 
available to bring the blessings of his leadership to far 
greater numbers. 
We must go beyond surface measurements to 

be sure our evaluations 
are quality ones, or if they 
are becoming a quick 
ritual only. Perhaps this 
could be exemplified in a 
temple interview. A bish- 
op could go down the line 
and merely ask the con- 
ventional questions and 
listen only for the words 
of the answers. His effec- 
tiveness could be very 
poor. He might receive 
affirmative answers and yet the individual might be 
quite unworthy to go into the temple. 

The bishop is entitled by revelation from the Lord 
to have discernment that would leave him uneasy 
about unworthy people, and thus he could prevent 
them from entering the sacred precincts of the 
temple. (See D&C 46:27.) An individual might be 
living the letter of the law on which he is questioned 
and yet be totally dishonest, heavily in debt, un- 
scrupulous in his business dealings, a brute in his 
home. But if the bishop or stake president with this 
discernment goes far beyond the usual and the sur- 
face measurements, he could better evaluate his 
performance. 

To be more specific, numerous leaders have asked 
in interviews, "Are you morally clean?" And the answer 
was, "Yes," when the individual actually was unclean. 
Perhaps in an occasion of this kind, the one being 
interviewed did not intend to lie, but the question was 
a general one, and he gave a general answer; and be- 
cause they did not have a meeting of minds as to 
what was morally clean, the wrong answer was given. 




Illustrated by David Thomas 




October 1969 



15 



"Each person must ask himself: 
Am I doing all that inspiration 
and my imagination can dictate?" 



This has happened too many times to count. 

We can ask ourselves about what we have done 
specifically in the spirit of D&C 58— beyond the formal 
requirements of the position— that enhances our ef- 
fectiveness. 

The Lord said: 

". . . give ear to my word, and learn of me what I 
will concerning you. . . . 

". . . he that is faithful in tribulation, the reward of 
the same is greater in the kingdom of heaven. 

"Ye cannot behold with your natural eyes, for the 
present time, the design of your God concerning those 
things which shall come hereafter, and the glory which 
shall follow after much tribulation. 

"For after much tribulation come the blessings. 
Wherefore the day cometh that ye shall be crowned 
with much glory; the hour is not yet, but is nigh at 
hand." (D&C 58:1-4.) 

"For behold, it is not meet that I should command 
in all things; for he that is compelled in all things, the 
same is a slothful and not a wise servant; wherefore 
he receiveth no reward." (D&C 58:26.) 

Each person might evaluate himself in light of this. 
Is he doing not only all the things his position requires, 
and all with which his superior has charged him? Is 
he also doing all that his own imagination and inspira- 
tion can dictate? It is not enough to do only that 
which the charge requires. 

"Verily I say, men should be anxiously engaged in a 
good cause, and do many things of their own free will, 
and bring to pass much righteousness." (D&C 58:27.) 

All men have been given special powers and within 
certain limitations should develop those powers, give 
vent to their own imaginations, and not become rubber 
stamps. They should develop their own talents and 
abilities and capacities to their limit and use them to 
build up the kingdom. 

"For the power is in them, wherein they are agents 
unto themselves. And inasmuch as men do good they 
shall in no wise lose their reward. 

"But he that doeth not anything until he is com- 
manded, and receiveth a commandment with doubtful 
heart, and keepeth it with slothfulness, the same is 
damned." (D&C 58:28-29. ) (To be continued) 



* 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Let every man remember 



\ A / herever we are, whatever we do, wherever 
% f\ /we go, in time and space, there are always 
V Vthese unchanging facts to face: the need we 
have for others — always — and yet each man is al- 
ways and forever inseparably himself, and carries his 
record with him. This is one of the sobering, yet 
reassuring realities of life: responsibility for our 
record, and the separateness forever of each within 
himself. Oh, think then of all things done and said 
and seen — think then of all things remembered: 
Think how childhood memories acutely return at 
times: faces, moods, words, impressions, sights and 
scenes. Sometimes the instrument seems clouded, 
sometimes acute, but the record is within us, of all 
we are or ever were, more surely than any graven 
image, more surely than any etching. Oh, please God, 
let every man remember that always he is inseparably 
with himself, and that his mind and heart are known 
to thee, and that the face, the words, the surface, 
do not change the inner substance. The record that 
we write within forever makes the man. This gives 
to each of us an absolute incentive to be honest 
with ourselves; with others also; to be faithful in 
marriage, true to loved ones; kind, sincere; to think 
with cleanliness of thought, to act with cleanliness 
of action; to intend no man ill or injury; to walk 
humbly; to deal justly, free from deceit; to give an 
honest day of work, and never take what isn't ours; 
or never take virtue or innocence from anyone, or 
avoid an honest obligation. Oh, each man should re- 
member how transparent he is before his Maker, and 
how truly written is the record inside himself, in 
time, and in eternity, as each remains himself. 

"The unwritten only still belongs to 
thee; 

Take heed and ponder well what that 
shall be." 1 



1 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Morituri Salutamus. 

*The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System 
July 20, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



16 



Improvement Era 



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Name. 




Oct. 1969 Era 




17 



• Anyone who has ever read the 
Book of Mormon cannot help but 
wonder about the circumstances 
surrounding Moroni when he final- 
ly buried the gold plates in the 
Hill Cumorah. In what season of 
the year did he seal up the plates, 
which were not revealed to mortal 
eyes until he personally showed 
them to young Joseph Smith four- 
teen centuries later? 

Readers of the Book of Mormon, 




and all who learn of its message, 
can appreciate the circumstances 
suggested in the scene that has 
recently been illustrated. The few 
known facts of this event have 
been blended with thoughtful con- 
jecture by the noted American 
illustrator, Tom Lovell. His paints 
and pigments portray Moroni 
kneeling in the snow, a lonely 
figure against a backdrop of great 
brooding trees. It is a moment of 
majesty as Moroni clasps his 
hands together, places them on 
top of the sacred record, raises his 



Sketches by artist Tom Lovell show progres- 
sive development of the painting. Note 
artist's experiments with perspective and the 
head position of Moroni. The drawings are 
not necessarily in order of completion. 




head, and with closed eyes offers 
a prayer, perhaps a dedication of 
this secret vault and its sacred 
contents. The metal plates catch 
the moonlight. The sword of Laban 
is seen in silhouette. The freshly 
dug earth has been spilled out 
across the snow. 

Note, however, that this is not 
the forlorn figure of a desperate 
man, the sole survivor of an en- 
tire nation. The naked arms are 
those of a warrior; the uplifted 
face shows the quiet strength of a 
prophet. This is a man who had 
written: "I have not friends nor 














18 



Improvement Era 





By Richard J. 
Marshall 



whither to go; and how long the 
Lord will suffer that I may live I 
know not." (Morm. 8:5.) 

Why the gray hair? the tattered 
clothing? This is certainly not a 
young man. Students of the Book 
of Mormon have pointed out that 
while Moroni was perhaps a young 
man when he survived the last 
great battle of Cumorah, which 
took place sometime between 385 
and 400 A.D., it was some 36 
years after the final preparations 
for the Cumorah wars before he 
did his last and final writing. His 




Richard J. Marshall coordinates for the Church the creation of much of the 
artwork and display material used in Church visitors centers. 



father apparently was in his sev- 
enty-fourth year when in 384 A.D. 
he announced that he "began to be 
old." Moroni may have been in 
his early twenties or even younger, 
or perhaps in his thirties or forties 
when he took charge of his ten 
thousand men at Cumorah. After 
the. final battle Moroni had no 
home that we know of, no place to 
rest; he wandered, wary of death 
at the hands of the Lamanites. His 
clothing no longer bespeaks the 
culture and refinement of the 
Nephites. It may have been simple 
animal skins. However, on his arm 
he wears the same striking brace- 
let that was seen on the arm of his 



father, Mormon, in an earlier paint- 
ing. (Era, April 1968, p. 12.) 

The single sign of his erudition 
is the plates. Indeed, Moroni was 
an educated man and had writ- 
ten: "And now, behold, we have 
written this record according to 
our knowledge, in the characters 
which are called among us the re- 
formed Egyptian, being handed 
down and altered by us, accord- 
ing to our manner of speech. 

"And if our plates had been 



October 1969 




19 



sufficiently large we should have 
written in Hebrew; but the Hebrew 
hath been altered by us also; and 
if we should have written in He- 
brew, behold, you would have had 
no imperfection in our record." 
(Morm. 9:32-33.) 

Some readers point out that at 
400 A.D. Moroni seems to finish 
the book, thinking perhaps this 
would be the end of his writing, 
saying, "Behold, I make an end of 
speaking concerning this people. 
I am the son of Mormon, and my 
father was a descendant of Nephi." 
(Morm. 8:13.) Having finished his 
history, as he supposed, he may 
have put the plates away only to 
return later to do some more writ- 
ing, translating, and abridging. Or 
perhaps he kept the plates with 
him in his wanderings. 

President Brigham Young said 
to Warren S. Snow, as they stood 
on the Manti Temple site on April 
25, 1877, "Here is the spot where 
the • prophet Moroni stood and 
dedicated this piece of land for a 
Temple site, and that is the rea- 
son why the location is made here, 
and we can't move it from this 
spot." (Orson F. Whitney, Life of 
Heber C. Kimball, Bookcraft, Inc., 
1967 ed., p. 436.) Hence, it seems 
that Moroni had considerable time 
to contemplate the importance of 



his calling as steward over the 
sacred records. 

Some have suggested that 
Moroni at first may have ended 
his writings at Mormon 8:13. This 
is further borne out by his continu- 
ing to write long after he had 
indicated he had "but few things 
to write" and had made "an 
end of speaking concerning the 
people." (Morm. 8:1, 13.) After 
making these comments, however, 
Moroni adds considerably more to 
the Book of Mormon, suggesting 
that he did so at a later time: he 
adds the lengthy Chapter 9 of 
Mormon, adds his translation of 
Ether's writings, and concludes by 
giving a final book called after 
himself. The last date given is 
421 A.D. 

So it is a wiser, much older man 
who kneels in the snow and pre- 
pares to hide this second witness 
for Christ — a lonely man, perhaps, 
but one who had never failed in 
his testimony: "And I, Moroni, will 
not deny the Christ." (Moro. 1:3.) 

This is the mortal man who was 
to become the angel seen in vision 
by John the Revelator, "having 
the everlasting gospel to preach 
unto them that dwell on the 
earth. . . ." (Rev. 14:6.) The 
recognition by Latter-day Saints 
that Moroni was indeed the angel 



referred to anciently by John was 
also corroborated to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith in Hiram, Ohio, on 
November 3, 1831, when the Lord 
revealed to him, "0 inhabitants of 
the earth, I have sent forth mine 
angel flying through the midst of 
heaven, having the everlasting 
gospel, who hath appeared unto 
some and hath committed it unto 
man. . . ." (D&C 133:36.) 

Ironically, Moroni's farewell in 
his final chapter is "unto my 
brethren, the Lamanites" (Moro. 
10:1), and he testifies to them of 
Christ and sets down his great ex- 
hortation in verse 4, which is a 
quotation frequently used by lat- 
ter-day missionaries in helping 
prospective converts gain testi- 
monies of the Book of Mormon. 

In the new Lovell painting, this 
prophet-warrior-wanderer seems 
not so forlorn nor lonely when 
his great salutation — the final 
verse of all his writings — is read: 
"And now I bid unto all, fare- 
well. I soon go to rest in the 
paradise of God, until my spirit 
and body shall again reunite, and 
I am brought forth triumphant 
through the air, to meet you before 
the pleasing bar of the great 
Jehovah, the Eternal Judge of both 
quick and dead. Amen." (Moro. 
10:34.) o 



Priceless Package 

By Dorothy Cameron Smith 



The day is a jewel — 

Uncut and unpolished as yet, 

Set in the box of the morning, 

Against the plush background of nature, 

Reflecting the colors of the universe, 

Gift-wrapped with the ribbons of dawn 

Unfolding in their pastel beauty, 

Marked with a tag from the heavens, 



Presented to mankind in general, 

To be worn in good taste, 

Without merit of carat, 

But weighed in the memory of the heart, 

According to the care taken in handling the 

merchandise, 
Never to be returned or exchanged for something better- 
Thread on the chain of eternity. 



20 



Improvement Era 



Bring on the 



By Bill R. Under 



Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn 




Grandparents 



• One of the most unexpected 
complaints against modern society 
by its current generation of teen- 
agers, as revealed in a recent 
study, is a lack of companionship 
with grandparents. Some surpris- 
ing comments are: 

"Why don't our grandparents 



live with us the way they live with 
their children and grandchildren 
in the storybooks?" 

"Why can't we have them to be 
with us and to talk to?" 

One researcher says, "They 
want grandparents like kids had 
50 years ago, and they feel some- 



Bill R. Linder, management analyst for the National Archives, Washington D.C., formerly was pub- 
lications editor of the Genealogical Society, and is a member of the Vienna (Virginia) Ward. 



thing is missing in their neat little 
suburban houses without them." 

"Many of them feel very lonely," 
reports another counseling agency. 
"They are not sure who they are, 
why they are on earth, or where 
they are going. They're searching 
for identity." 

What is it about grandparents 
that helps to fill voids in persons' 
lives — especially teenagers? Is it 



October 1969 



21 



'Youngsters learn 
to observe 
the aging process 
and to accept 
illness and death" 

the wisdom of years and experi- 
ence, that surefooted confidence 
and firm approach to reality, or is 
it the tactful, well-offered advice 
that often brings a wink of thanks 
in ticklish situations? 

Grandparents play many roles 
in family affairs. They serve as a 
link between the child and the pre- 
ceding generation, bringing conti- 
nuity to the family and knowledge 
of previous eras. "Tell me about 
Daddy when he was a boy" is 
bound to come up sooner or later. 
Through grandparent companion- 
ship, the child learns the human- 
ness and early experiences of his 
parents. The child has something 
on which to build his own person- 
ality and attitudes — different and 
separate, yet part of his family 
unit. The youngsters learn to ob- 
serve the aging process and to 
accept and enjoy life, regardless 
of illness and death of the aged 
members of the family. 

It is no wonder teenagers miss 
their grandparents. They want 
them to be as much of their routine 
as Saturday night dates. The 
older folks who talk about horse 
and buggy and kerosene lamps, 
but who can't comprehend modern 
fashions or the Beatles or surf- 
boards, are merely partial looking 
glasses reflecting the same basic 
image years hence. 

And if you want your future 
told, ask Grandma. She's no 
soothsayer, but grandparents know 
what the future will bring if we 



do this or that or if we don't. They 
know the secrets of living; they 
have discovered long ago, by the 
hand-me-down route, the all-im- 
portant clues to finding continuity 
and purpose in life. 

The family chain is by nature 
eternal, and each succeeding gen- 
eration brings a fresh harvest of 
wisdom and experience to call 
upon. Even our grandparents' 
grandparents had to learn for 
themselves the basic lessons in 
life, and today we live by prac- 
tically the same codes they did. 

Today's teenagers are likely to 
live until 2020 or 2030. In their 
middle years they'll see a brand 
new century come, the twenty-first 
century, with its revolutionary new 
ways, means, schemes, and ideas. 
By then, the present after-school 
service station attendants and 
baby-sitters will be struggling to 
get their own children through col- 
lege, or may even be shifting into 
an entirely different gear of living 
as grandparents themselves. 

They'll rub elbows, personally, 
with two centuries, fore and aft. 
They will have heard their grand- 
parents quote yarns about the 
Civil War, which they got from 
their elders, and the Gay Nineties 
to them were just that close. Mom 
and Dad remember well the Great 
Depression, and the names Goeb- 
bels, Himmler, and Hiroshima. 

On the other extreme, teenagers 
today will know their own grand- 
children and will look into their 
futures, which may extend on into 
the latter half of the twenty-first 
century. It is amazing how today 
is linked with yesterday and to- 
morrow. 

Parents everywhere ought to 
heed the complaints of today's 
teenagers and give them back 
their grandparents. A Sunday at 
Grandma's house will be well 
spent and a pleasant day to re- 
member. Inviting grandparents to 



come and spend time with the fam- 
ily will help cement family ties. 
Have them in the home, not only 
for family home evening but for 
several days at a time, and often. 
Give youngsters a chance to evalu- 
ate the relationships Mom and 
Dad have with their parents, for 
by watching these reactions and 
interrelationships, they can better 
gauge their own actions. 

Invite the grandparents to 
talk. Nothing pleases grandparents 
more than to tell of things that 
happened "way back when." In 
the process, watch carefully. 
Somewhere buried in those pleas- 
ant remembrances, they'll be clue- 
ing your kids in on a secret. Don't 
be too surprised at the simplicity 
of its hiding place. Common sense 
will easily direct it. With alert ears 
to the past and sharp eyes to the 
present, while Grandpa talks, the 
children will discover their own 
future 50 years from now. 

The simplest age-old principles 
for living will pour out of these 
oldsters. Do you know what they'll 
say first? Have you ever known a 
grandparent not to mention the 
importance of honesty and up- 
rightness before God and fellow- 
man? They'll do it almost every 
time — and who needs reminding 
more than today's teenagers? 
Moms and dads can stand a little 
reminding, too. 

Grandparents like to turn the 
conversation to things of the spirit. 
If they have a testimony, they'll 
pass it on to you and your kids. 
This brings on a spiritual together- 
ness that is never forgotten and 
results in a continuing chain, 
past to present to future, genera- 
tion to generation, father to son. 

Without the past there is no fu- 
ture — and if we close the connect- 
ing links we will not only find the 
past, but we will be prepared for 
the future also. 

Bring on the grandparents! O 



22 



Improvement Era 



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The autobiography of a white man who lived with the 
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$3.50 



October 1969 



23 



A FEW GREAT WORDS TO THE WISE . . 



4. AN ENEMY HATH DONE THIS 
By Ezra Taft Benson 



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By Mark E. Petersen 



With turmoil and 
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**r. 



^3 



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Reprinted by 
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24 



Improvement Era 



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October 19f 



25 



AWalk With Fear 



• I slowed my step and looked 
to assure myself that no one was 
near. A single set of footprints 
trailing down the beach gave mute 
evidence that I was alone. The 
ocean churned over the reef and 
rushed onto the shore with a rest- 
lessness that seemed only to add 
to the urgency of my pilgrimage. 1 
wanted to be alone. I hurried on, 
seeking perhaps for a "sacred 
grove" or a desert place where, 
like Jesus, I could be strengthened 
for the difficult days that lay 
ahead. 

Things had happened so quick- 
ly. So much had been left undone 
and unsaid in the few short days 
that separated the receipt of my 
orders and my departure for Viet- 
nam. Now I walked alone along 
the beach of an island that I hardly 
knew existed until just a few min- 
utes ago, when our aircraft landed 
here. En route, by stroke of fate 
or divine providence, mechanical 
difficulties had caused our plane 
to divert onto this tiny speck of an 
island in the middle of the Pacific 
Ocean. 

For days I had been tortured 
with loneliness, uncertainty, and 
fear. Yet I was no stranger to these 
emotions. I was a career soldier, 
a veteran infantryman, a parachut- 
ist, an experienced pilot. I lived 
with fear and death and had failed 
many difficult circumstances. This 



By Garth Geddes 

was my element. Why then did 
events weigh so heavily upon me 
as to bring me to the depths of 
despair, and why did my spirit 
groan within me and cry for relief? 

Aimlessly I walked on. Ahead, 
there came into view the rotting 
remains of an old trestle bridge. I 
guess it had been crushed years 
before by an angry sea and now lay 
restlessly within her bounds. I 
walked out along the broken tim- 
bers and stood above a small, 
deep-blue lagoon. From my ele- 
vated view I commanded a thou- 
sand miles of sea and sand. I 
felt very small and very much 
alone. In the quiet hush that sur- 
rounded me, I could have believed 
that I was the only living soul in 
all the world. 

In awe and desperate need I 
bowed my head and prayed. 
"Father in heaven, help me. Let 
me live to see my wife and children 
again; bless them. I love them, 
God. I love them so very much. 
Bless us all. Give us strength to 
do what we must do." 

I raised my eyes, pondering 
what I had said. I was impressed 
how an experience such as this 
puts things in their proper order. 

Momentarily I caught a glimpse 



of a swimmer slowly making his 
way through the surf and into the 
small lagoon over which I stood. 
Soon he was directly below me, 
unaware of my presence. As I 
watched, he released crumbs of 
bread from a small cloth sack he 
had tied to his waist. The water 
suddenly churned to life as hun- 
dreds of magnificently colored 
tropical fish flashed from the 
bottom of the lagoon to take 
the crumbs. His sack empty, the 
swimmer surfaced and lifted the 
goggles from his face. He said a 
surprised hello as he became 
aware that I had been watching. 
Hardly a dozen words had passed 
between us when, without fore- 
thought, the question, "Are you a 
Mormon?" tumbled from my lips. 

"Yes," came the excited reply. 

We embraced as brothers. He, 
like me, was lonely. He also had 
prayed for help. The only Latter- 
day Saint living on the island, he 
too longed for the strength that 
comes from the communion of 
Saints, of priesthood bearers. 

How strange, yet how beauti- 
fully simple are the ways of God. 
Our lives inexorably crossed, and 
the impact of this strange rendez- 
vous was astonishing to both of us. 



Garth Geddes, a career officer in the U.S. Army, is presently assigned to the 
Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He and his 
wife have six children. 



26 



Iro^rovement Era 



How could it have been more 
plainly told that God knew we 
were there, that he was aware of 
our separate needs, that he had 
heard our prayers? 

I had indeed found my sacred 
grove, my desert place. Oh, I was 
lonely still; I had no real assur- 
ance that I would not be killed 
in the mortal combat that was 
now just hours away. God had 
not revealed that all would be well 
with my wife and family. Yet I 
took from that tiny tropical island 
one small pearl of great price that 
I shall cherish forever: I knew that 
God loved me, and that even at 
the ends of the earth he knew 
where I was. He was aware of my 
suffering, of lonely hours, of tears 
shed in solitude. In his own way, 
God had spoken to me anew the 
words given to the Prophet Joseph 
in the dark chambers of Liberty 
Jail 130 years before: 

". . . my son ... all these things 
shall give thee experience, and 
shall be for thy good. The Son of 
Man hath descended below them 
all. Art thou greater than he? 
Therefore, hold on thy way, and 
the priesthood shall remain with 
thee; for their bounds are set, 
they cannot pass. Thy days are 
known, and . . . shall not be num- 
bered less; therefore, fear not 
what man can do, for God shall 
be with you forever and ever." O 



October 1969 



FOR 30 DAYS ONLY! 



IPH 




when you join the 



mn rcfii In il 

— —— fnffer exoiri 



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(offer expires Nov. 10th, 1969) 



REGULAR $7.50 VALUE 
AT ALL BOOK STORES 




00N&0 



By Sterling W. Sill 

Probably the most popular 
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published for Church members. 




AMONG THE SH0SH0NES 
By Elijah Nichols Wilson $3.50 

CLASSIC EXPERIENCES AND 
ADVENTURES $3.95 

THE WAY TO PEACE 
By Mark E. Petersen $3.95 



AN ENEMY HATH DONE THIS 
By Ezra Taft Benson $4.95 

THE MESSAGE OF THE 
DOCTRINE & COVENANTS 
By John A. Widtsoe $3.50 

PIONEER AND INDIAN STORIES 
By Lucy Parr $2.50 




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27 



• "Everything and one," replied 
Tim Barnes, as his deacons 
quorum secretary asked for his 
attendance at priesthood meet- 
ing, sacrament meeting, Sunday 
School, and MIA, and his quorum 
assignments completed. I have 
heard those words many times as 
I have visited priesthood quorums 
(as have countless others who 
have worked with our Aaronic 
Priesthood youth), but today they 
seemed to have a special meaning. 

It was not always this way for 
Tim. He and his mother moved 
onto the Swenson farm just four 
months ago. Our first attempts to 
bring Tim into activity met with 
failure. 

He was a quiet lad. He had very 
little to do with the Church, or 
anyone, for that matter. He always 
seemed to be alone. His only 
companions were his dog Tip and 
his mother. 

Two months ago Tip was hit by 
a car in front of the home of Billy 
Jackson, the deacons quorum 
president. Billy saw the accident, 
and he carefully carried Tip off 
the street, applied first aid, and 
put a splint on the dog's right 
front leg. Then Billy and his dad 
carefully placed Tip in the back 
of the station wagon and drove to 



the home of the Barnes family. 

"Thanks for bringing him 
home," said Tim, "and for the 
swell job of patching him up." 

"Nothing to it," said Billy. "We 
learned all about that in our Boy 
Scout troop." 

Their talking was interrupted by 
the sound of Mrs. Barnes' voice. 
"Tim, you had better get on the 
milking. It's getting late." 

"Golly," said Billy. "You mean 
you have cows?" 

"Sure, and horses, pigs, chick- 
ens — just about everything. It's 
kind of hard, though. My dad died 
after a heart attack a year ago, 
and my older brother won't be 
home from the army for three 
more months. So there's just Mom 
and me." 

Billy watched intently as Tim 
brought in the cows and locked 
their heads in the stanchions. "Will 
you let me put the milkers on 
one?" he asked. 

"Sure, go ahead." 

Soon the milking was finished. 
Billy felt good inside. He had 
helped save Tip and had been able 
to learn about miking chores, but 
most of all he had made a friend. 

During the next week Billy went 
to Tim's home several times. On 
one visit he brought three of his 



friends from the quorum. They 
arrived just at milking time, so 
they all pitched in and helped 
with the chores. Tim's mother 
then invited them in for cherry 
pie and cold milk. 

Tim and Billy soon became 
good friends. Then late one 
evening, just after the evening 
chores, Billy said to Tim, "You 
know, we would sure like to have 
you come over to our quorum 
meeting next Sunday." 

"I'd like to come, but I just 
can't get done with my chores 
and over there by eight o'clock. 
I'll start when my brother comes 
home from the army," Tim re- 
plied. 

Billy said nothing, but he was 
thinking. 

That Saturday afternoon he 
called a special quorum meeting 
at his home. The next morning 
Tim heard a rap at his door just 
as he was getting dressed. 

"Hi, Tim! We thought we would 
help you with your chores so you 
could go to priesthood meeting 
with us." 

Tim was amazed. After what 
seemed like only minutes, the 
chores were done and the boys 
headed for their homes on their 
bicycles. 



Everything and One 










Billy called out, "Tim, my dad 
and I will pick you up in half an 
hour for priesthood meeting." 

Tim was ready and waiting. The 
quorum meeting that day had a 
special spirit, for the deacons had 
exercised their priesthood. 

That was two months ago. The 
quorum members have been over 
every Sunday morning since, and 
Tim has not missed a priesthood, 
Sunday School, or sacrament 
meeting. 

Tim's brother Jack is home 
from the army now. He hasn't 
been to church yet, but Tim says 
that he has promised to come out 
next Sunday. Mrs. Barnes has 
attended sacrament meeting with 
Tim and started attending Relief 
Society. 

Now whenever I hear the words 
"everything and one," as the quo- 
rum roll is called, I think of how 
the Lord has promised us every- 
thing he has if we are faithful. 
And I think of Tim, Billy, and the 
deacons quorum, and how the 
priesthood in action is changing 
the life of a boy, a family, and 
future generations to come. o 



Dale Quinlan, an industrial specialist 
at Hill Air Force Base, is first counse- 
lor in the Sunset (Utah) Sixth Ward. 



By Dale Quinlan 

Illustrated by Dick Brown 










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Lithe 

Season 
Thereof 



By Amy Hillyard Jensen 



Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn 




^ " 



// 



Amy Hillyard Jensen, a Sunday 
School teacher in the Bellevue (Wash- 
ington) First Ward and the mother 
of eight, found the plot for this story 
in an incident involving friends 
whose son was serving a mission. 




F 



"V' 



1AT 



(7*i 






J 



^cdiy4 





Improvement Era 




Fiction 



K 



From the journal of 
Catherine Wyman 

September 19, 1966 



• We put Doug on the plane for Salt Lake this 
morning, and somehow I found the strength not 
to weep. But I wondered, as I have so many times 
these past few months, how did it happen? Hotv 
did my handsome Protestant son end up as a, 
Mormon missionary? 

We were so "understanding," Richard and I, 
when Doug came to us two years ago and said he 
wanted to join the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. His best friend, Alan Baker, 
was a Mormon, so we knew they were fine people. 
And maybe we really thought the whole idea 
would wear off, like some of his other teen-age 
fancies. I don't know. All we asked was that he 
wait a few months to be sure. 

But waiting only seemed to strengthen his de- 
termination. He went to church twice on Sunday 
and to every conceivable kind of meeting during 
the week. It was annoying, but we couldn't really 
object. Then he was baptized. 

I guess the turning point came when he decided 
to go to Brigham Young University. If only we 
had kept him here in Seattle! He could have gone 
to one of the community colleges or to the univer- 
sity. Instead, he went off to Utah with Alan, and 
his letters home were brimming with love for this 
new life of his. 

What happened shouldn't have come as a sur- 
prise, I guess. We knew the Bakers were planning 
to send Alan on a mission. But when Doug came 
home from college in June and told us he wanted 
to go too — well, I cried, and Richard was as grim 
as I've ever seen him. 

"Doug," he told him, "you know my business 
right now barely keeps the five of us going. I 
simply haven't the money to finance your . . . 
whim!" 

I'll never forget the look on Doug's face. "Dad," 
he said, "this isn't a whim. I want it more than 
I've ever wanted anything in my life. I've saved 
a little from my job and my bishop says the mem- 
bers of the elders quorum want to help finance 
my way." 

So that was it. Summer has rushed by, the 
days filled with innoculations and new suits to 
buy — the nights, with a mother's tears. Now both 
Doug and Alan will be at the Language Training 
Institute for a few weeks before going to South 



America — Alan to Argentina, and Doug to Brazil. 

This morning before we left for the airport, we 
all stood for a minute under the old apple tree 
that's sheltered our family for so long. Then Doug 
gave a shooting -for-a-basket leap and grabbed a 
ripe apple. "This' 11 have to last me," he said. 

Yes, / thought, as in a minute he devoured what 
had been months in the making. It will have to 
last me, too. So I looked and looked and tried to 
memorize the lines of the face that has been mine 
to love for nearly 20 years. 

Christmas Day, 1966 

Elder Douglas Wyman 
Caixa Postal 862 
Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Dearest Doug, 

Merry Christmas ! ! ! Dinner is over, and 
we're each of us sitting here and writing 
you a letter, even Grandpa McFarland. We 
drove up to Bellingham and got him a few 
nights ago, and he'll stay here over New 
Year' s. 

I can see the apple tree from where I sit. 
Right now the branches are so bleak and 
dead-looking it's hard to imagine that 
spring will ever come again. 

But in Brazil I guess it's already sum- 
mer now. We're so anxious to hear from you, 
to know that you've arrived safely and that 
everything is fine. t 

It was so good to talk to you Monday morn- 
ing when you called from the Salt Lake air- 
port-if you can call it talking. I'm afraid 
we were a pretty tearful bunch. Even Randy, 
who never does anything "uncool" if he can 
help it, went off by himself after your 
phone call. Laurie and I must have used up 
half a box of tissue between us. And your 
dad-well, you know what an old softie he is ! 

The thing that was really the hardest to 
take-but the sweetest— was the prayer you 
said, right there on the phone. I don't 
think we've ever felt closer as a family 
than we did at that moment. 

We're so proud of the way you've learned 
your Portuguese. It must be hard. But what 
an asset when you go back to college. I want 
to say I'm sorry for the way I've acted 
about your taking these two years away from 
your schooling. It's your life, Doug, and 



October 1969 



31 



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we haven't the right to criticize. 

There's just one thing, though, and I hope 
you won' t think I 'm too stubborn. Remember 
when you were little and used to sell 
Christmas cards and Little League stickers? 
Dad and I always ended up buying some to help 
you out. 

Well, it may seem strange to say this, but 
I don' t feel we should have the missionaries 
call on us right now. It wouldn' t be honest, 
Doug. If we listened to the lessons, it 
would only be to "help you out. " Do you see? 

This doesn't mean that we don't have a 
great deal of respect for your church and 
its teachings. We've seen quite a bit of 
the Bakers lately, and they are wonderful 
people. It's easy to see why Alan is such 
a fine boy. His little sister Tina and all 
the other children are so proud of him ! 

Well, I'll have to finish this up now. 
Randy' s having some of his friends over. I'm 
a little worried about him. There's one 
boy he's seeing a lot of that I can't truth- 
fully say I care for — Bud something-or- 
other. 

I think this is the last winter we'll let 
Grandpa stay alone. He's grown so thin and 
frail-looking. Bless him, he seems to take 
pride in your new calling. "My missionary 
grandson," he calls you. 

Well, take care, Doug. We love you and 
miss you and pray that all goes well. 

Bless you always, 
Mom 



how it will be, leaving everything that reminds you of 
Mama. It hurts me, too. But it would hurt me more 
to have anything happen to you when you're so far 
from us. 

We've finally heard from Doug, after another of 
those long silences. The mail from South America 
is so unpredictable! He's fine and has baptized an- 
other family. It makes me feel terrible to think that 
the one family in the whole world he wants most to 
baptize is us — and I won't even listen to the mis- 
sionary discussion. Well, I still may relent. 

Daddy, plan on making the change soon, won't 
you? Richard and I would take care of all the ar- 
rangements. You could start listing the things that 
need to be done. We'll come up Sunday so that we 
can talk some more. 

Our best love, 

Catherine 

Dear Randy, 

This little note is just to say I'm sorry I blew up 
at you this afternoon. Forgive me for being such 
a grouch. But I was disappointed in the kind of 
language you were using on the phone when you 
talked to Bud. I don't think you have to lower 
your standards just to be a part of the crowd. 
Doug has always set a good example for you, and 
I'd like you to set a good one for Laurie. 

Now would you do something for me ? Laurie's 
been feeling kind of blue lately, and Mrs. Baker 
thought she might like to go to a special activity 
at the church Friday night. Would you be a nice 
big brother and take her over? Consider this a 
hug and a kiss. I love you. 

Mom 



May 16, 1967 



November 21, 1967 



Mr. Peter McFarland 
Bellingham, Washington 

Dear Daddy, 

I've just come in from working in the garden, and 
I'm bushed! But it's beautiful now. The apple tree is' 
magnificent, like a great cornucopia of candied 
popcorn. 

We so enjoyed our visit home last week. The kids 
always love it. But Richard and I both agree it's too 
much for you now. Are we selfish to want you to 
come and live with us? 

Anyway, you've promised to think it over, and 
we'll do everything we can to make it easier. I know 



Elder Douglas Wyman 
Caixa Postal 862 
Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Dearest Doug, 

This is so hard to write, and I've waited 
until I could tell you the whole story. 
Grandpa died last Friday night, and we had 
the funeral service today. How I wish you 
could have been here. 

He'd had a pain in his chest, but hadn't 
said anything. When I realized he was ill, 
I got him right to the doctor. He sent him 
to the hospital immediately. That night 



October 1969 



33 



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he had a massive heart attack. 

He was put on the heart monitor, under in- 
tensive care, and your father and I spent 
every minute with him that we could. It was 
so strange and unreal. They wanted him to 
rest, so we spent most of our time in the 
corridor, watching the electrocardiogram 
and the little light that registered his 
heartbeat. Off and on, off and on-such a 
precarious link with life. A scoreboard, I 
thought. Who's winning? Life or death? 

Finally they told us to go home and get 
some rest. Your father said, "Do you want 
to go in and see him for a minute?" 

I thought he was asleep, because they'd 
just given him a sedative. But he opened 
his eyes for an instant. Then he whispered, 
"Doug was right. " 

I could only nod. Then I kissed his fore- 
head. It was so cool and damp. I said a 
little prayer, "Father, if he can't live-if 
it be thy will— let him go quickly." And 
Doug, that's just how it was. Only a few 
hours later the hospital called. 

The Reverend Wilson, who had been Grand- 
pa' s minister for so long, conducted the 
service. It was nice, I guess. He said 
all the right things. But something was 
missing. 

When your Grandmother McFarland died be- 
fore you were born, I was content with the 
usual platitudes. But I was a happy young 
bride then, with all my life ahead of me. I 
had your wonderful father. I didn't real- 
ize then how mortal we all are, how quickly 
life speeds along. This time was differ- 
ent, somehow. I wanted Mr. Wilson to look 
me in the eye and say, "Catherine, I know 
that your father lives and is with your 
mother, and that you will see them both 
again." Instead he talked about what "we 
hoped" and "it must be so." 

Darling, I 'm sorry to burden you this way. 
I don't know what Grandpa meant when he said 
"Doug was right." Did he mean right that 
you decided for yourself what to do? Or 
something more? 

God bless and keep you, Doug. Don't 
grieve for Grandpa. He'd have hated being 
an invalid. Write soon. We love your 
letters. 

All our love, 
Mom, Dad, Randy, and Laurie 



P.S. Daddy talked to the bishop and we've 
arranged to carry your full support from 
now on. I think it would please Grandpa. 

From the journal of 
Catherine Wyman 

January 1, 1968 

I want to remember this New Year's Day — the 
loneliness, without Doug and Daddy — but the 
snug and cozy way the rest of us have drawn to- 
gether. Always there is the apple tree outside, 
measuring the seasons. We must prune it this 
spring. It's like a loved but neglected child in need 
of a haircut. 

Christmas was new all over again, when I 
thought it would be desolate. It was less frantic, 
more mellow . . . because of the Bakers. I'll re- 
member Christmas Eve at their place, a fire 
dancing. How good Ron Baker's voice sounded 
reading the beloved story from St. Luke in that 
rich baritone of his. 

Then Tina snuggling close to me. "Sister Wy- 
man" — she always calls me that — "Sister Wyman, 
do you think we knew each other in the pre- 
existence ?" 

My head may have had an answer ready, but 
my heart spoke up first. "Oh, I'm sure we did!" 
Strange that it sounded so true. 



February 11, 1968 

Office of the Registrar 
Brigham Young University 
Provo, Utah 84601 

Dear Sir: 

My son is considering attending Brigham Young 
University this coming year. He has already taken 
his American College Tests and would like to have 
the necessary application blanks to fill out. Also, we 
would appreciate information on housing, and a cata- 
log for the school year. Enclosed is my check for 
$2.00. 

Material should be mailed to: Randolph Wyman 

633 12th Ave. East 
Seattle, Wash. 



Thank you so much. 



Sincerely, 

Catherine Wyman 



October 1969 



35 



June 10, 1968 
Elder Douglas Wyman 
Caixa Postal 862 
Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Dearest Doug, 

Your latest letter came today, and it was 
good to hear from you. You must be so 
thrilled to have finally baptized your 
landlady. She sounds almost as stubborn 
as your mother. 

Well, Saturday night was commencement for 
Randy, and I wish you could have seen him in 
his cap and gown. He's grown so much! Dad 
took a few pictures, which he'll send later. 

Now for the bad news. We thought it was 
all settled that Randy was going to BYU, but 
last week he announced that he had changed 
his mind. He said it was silly to go off 
to "the sticks" when there was a good uni- 
versity right here in Seattle. (I can re- 
member when I said the same thing to you, to 
my everlasting shame. ) 

The thing is, the hippie element at the U 
is a little alarming right now, and though 
I trust Randy, he's young. And now Bud 
Ellis (you remember his side-kick that 
troublesome junior year) has been after him 
to go to the U. They're even talking about 
taking an apartment together in the uni- 
versity district. 

Your dad and I tried to find out what had 
changed his mind. "A lot of things," he 
said. 

"Like what?" Dad asked him. 

And then came the shocker. "Well, going 
to Mutual and everything has been okay, " he 
said, "but I never really feel a part of it. 
After all, you and Mom hardly ever go. And 
if the Church is so great, how come you don't 
join it?" 

That stopped us cold, and it really made 
me think. Dad would have had the mission- 
aries over long ago if it hadn't been for 
me. So I know what I have to do. Perhaps 
there's something y_ou could say to Randy. I 
don't know. But we still have Laurie to 
guide, and this time we want to do it right. 

God bless you, darling. We're having fam- 
ily prayer every night now, with your wel- 
fare always first in our hearts. 

Love from us all, 

Mom, Dad, and children 



July 19, 1968 

Elder Alan Baker 

North Argentine Mission 

Casilla #17, Sucursal de Correo #9 

Cordoba, Argentina 

Dear Alan, 

How hard these past few weeks must have been 
for you, not knowing for sure whether Tina would 
recover or not. Now that you've had the good 
news that she's out of danger, I wanted to write 
and tell you what a wonderful family you have, 
and what an inspiration they've been to everyone. 

As your mother probably told you, the accident 
happened shortly after Tina left our house. Thank 
goodness Randy was home! When we heard the 
squeal of brakes, we both shot out of the house 
in a panic. When Randy saw what had happened, 
somehow he had the presence of mind to remem- 
ber his first aid training. The doctor said later 
that he'd done exactly the right thing. 

But we know that this isn't what saved Tina's 
life. It was the power of the priesthood, and the 
fasting and prayers of everyone who loved her. 

Your family had the loveliest letter from your 
mission president. He said that after the cable- 
gram arrived and you'd been called to the mission 
home to be told the news, you took it with the 
greatest courage and faith. 

Alan, we want you to know that every member 
of your family reacted in that same way. You 
would have been proud of them. I've never seen 
such a demonstration of trust in the Lord and 
complete family unity. Its effect on all of us — 
and on Randy in particular — can never be 
measured. 

May the Lord bless you in your labors. All of 
us can hardly wait until you and Doug are home 
again to stay. 

Fondly, 
Catherine Wyman 

November 28, 1968 

Elder Douglas Wyman 
Caixa Postal 862 
Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Doug boy, 

I was cleaning out my desk this morning 
and I found the funniest thing ! It was a list 
I made just after you left on your mission- 



36 



Improvement Era 



a list of things I was going to do while you 
were gone to make the time go faster. I had 
planned to take up golf, refinish my ma- 
hogany chest , put all the family pictures in 
an album-and maybe even get a j ob ! 

And what am I doing instead? I'm singing 
in the ward choir, quilting in Relief So- 
ciety, going with your dad to a million dif- 
ferent activities, and loving every minute 
of it. 

I guess I'm almost as busy as Randy. His 
letters from the Y are so happy. He loves 
his classes and is always talking about his 
family home evenings. The "father" of the 
family of students is a young returned 
missionary! 

You know, looking back, there seems to be 
something almost inevitable about the way a 
testimony grows. It makes me think of the 
apple tree. To look at it now, dark and 
twisted against the sky, it seems without 
life. But its roots are buried in the moist 
earth, and within it lies the secret of 
leaves and blossoms and ripe fruit. The sea- 
sons change and the sap rises. Is there 
within each of us a remembrance of the gos- 
pel, learned in another time and place, that 
lies dormant until the seasons change? It 
seems it must be so. 

Just a few more weeks now and you'll be 
home. I'm going to miss those funny green 
and yellow striped airmail letters. But 
if we're lucky, there may be many more mis- 
sionary letters in years to come, for Randy 
says he'd like to fill a mission too. 

But now we're looking forward to Christ- 
mas, when our returning missionary son can 
baptize his most stubborn converts. How 
glad I am that we turned out to be "golden" 
contacts after all ! ! ! Just one thing wor- 
ries me. Can you perform the ordinance in 
English? We don' t know any Portuguese ! 

Your loving family, 

Mom, Dad, Randy, and Laurie O 



Argentine Sunset 
By Barbara Clark 

It's supjiosed to have a natural cause, 

A succinct, scientific explanation. 

But ivho thinks of science when time stands still 

And watches the sun say good-night to a nation? 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



And even forgive ourselves 



A I of us are aware at times of the fretfulness and 
frustrations of life— sometimes troubled, dis- 
i couraged, discontent, as we lose the peace, the 
sense of purpose, that are always so essential to an 
inner calm and quiet. And these frustrations are added 
unto as we see days swiftly slip away, and see our- 
selves running, going, coming, using up the hours, 
not doing all we should, and, in our efforts to catch 
up and to recover, wavering with excesses, with up- 
swings and downswings; high in spirit at times, de- 
pressed at others; so much undone and so much 
that is overdone. And so today, with some self- 
searching, we would plead for calm and quiet, for 
patience, contemplation, and for reappraisal of our 
purpose, with faith in the limitless and everlasting 
possibilities of life. And, along with faith, we need 
repentance, understanding, charity, forgiveness, as 
all of us come face to face with an appraisal of our 
past, with the uses of\he present, and a turning to 
the values that will last the longest. And let us, please 
God, learn the uselessness of enmity— enmity toward 
evil, yes— but not enmity toward others who are sin- 
cerely trying to live and find their way in life. Oh, 
may we live our lives with more concern and kindli- 
ness for loved ones, more compassion for other 
people, more honesty, more gentleness in judgment, 
and even maybe more forgiving of ourselves, know- 
ing that God lives, that life and loved ones are ever- 
lasting, that his law and power and purpose are over 
all— and thus find faith and peace, as we improve, 
repent, forgiving others, keeping his command- 
ments, living the laws of health, the laws of happi- 
ness, indeed the laws of life— so living that, gently 
and sincerely, we can even forgive ourselves. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Tem- 
ple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System August 10, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



October 1969 



37 



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38 



Improvement Era 




Indian Student Placement 

Some 4,000 Indian students from reservations and 
tribes throughout the United States and Canada 
recently met or returned to their foster parents 
at the beginning of another school year. 
Hundreds of young, eager Indians 
poured into selected 



stake centers throughout the Church, where 

they were checked by doctors, barbers, nurses, social 

workers, and others in preparation for their 

assignments to foster families. At the end 

of the school year the Indian students 

will return home to their Indian parents for the summer. 




Tabernacle Choir Performs in Toronto and Chicago 



Our widely acclaimed ambassadors 
of goodwill, the Tabernacle Choir, 
recently returned from a tour to 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Chicago, 
where they presented a total of three 
concerts and won praises for themselves 
and the Church. Two concerts 
were held in Toronto, where the Choir 



had been invited to participate in 
the Canadian National Exposition. They 
sang before an estimated two-day total 
of 30,000 persons. They 
then flew to Chicago, where a concert 
was presented at the American 
Hospital Association's annual 
convention. 




Architect President 

Dean L Gustavson 
of the Cottonwood (Salt 
Lake City) Second Ward 
has been named 
president of the National 
Council of 
Architectural 
Registration Boards. 



October 1969 



39 



TheLDS Scene 




World Conference on Records Termed 'Tremendous 

The world's first conference on records, sponsored 

by the Genealogical Society of the Church, 

was recently attended by about 5,000 persons. During 

the four-day event, held in Salt Lake City, conference 

visitors from every state in the United States 

and from 45 nations attended nearly 200 classes and 

heard world-famous authorities and experts 

lecture on matters pertaining to genealogy, 

record keeping, and records preservation. Elder Theodore 

M. Burton, vice president and general manager 

of the Genealogical Society, termed the conference 

"a tremendous success." 

Numerous awards of high standing were 



Success' 

presented to the Genealogical Society: the Certificate of 

Appreciation of the American Society of Genealogists, 

"in recognition of outstanding service to 

genealogy as a science"; a Distinguished Achievement 

award for "valuable contributions to the state 

of the art of visual communications and records 

preservation," by Afga-Gevaert, Inc.; Printing 

Industries of American Graphics Award; and a personal 

presentation by Dr. Labib Habachi, noted as the 

world's foremost Egyptologist, who presented 

an ancient hand-woven tapestry of Cleopatra VII 

(51-30 B.C.) to the Genealogical Society 

for its "incomparable efforts and successes in genealogy. 



40 



Improvement Era 




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All-Church Golf Tournament 

In the recent annual all-Church golf championships, 

Robert Andreason of Lakewood (California) 

Second Ward won the senior division's first sudden 

death playoff. Junior championship winner 

for the second year in a row was Jeff Ellis of Oak Harbor 

(Washington) Ward. Veteran division winner, also 

for the second straight year, was Larry Summerhays 

of Mountain View (Salt Lake City) Second 

Ward. The matches were held at Alpine and Wasatch 

Mountain State Park golf clubs in Utah. 




All-Church Softball Championships 

Champions of the annual all-Church softball 

tournament are: Senior fast pitch — Burbank (California) 

Second Ward, which defeated Bountiful 

(Utah) 13th Ward, 3-2; senior slow pitch — Mesa 

(Arizona) 22nd Ward over Westchester (California) Second 

Ward, 20-9; junior fast pitch — Chula Vista 

(California) Ward over Canoga Park (California), 8-4; 

junior slow pitch — Phoenix (Arizona) Tenth Ward 

over Westminster (California) Ward, 5-2. 

Sportsmanship honors went to the following: Senior fast 

pitch — Lehi (Utah) Fourth Ward; senior 

slow pitch— Marietta (Georgia) Ward; junior fast 

pitch — Canoga Park (California) Ward; junior slow pitch — 

Twin Falls (Idaho) Ward. Games were held at 

Salt Lake City's George Q. Morris Park. 




Fourth Biennial Explorer-Ensign Conference 

More than 3,000 Latter-day Saint Explorers and Ensigns 
from throughout the United States, Canada, and 
Mexico recently gathered at Brigham Young 
University, Provo, Utah, for the Fourth Biennial Explorer- 
Ensign conference. During the six-day event, the 
young men engaged in athletic events and career 
exploration and challenged in contests of 
cultural and mental skills. They also met in general 
sessions and heard General Authorities, Mormon 
astronaut Don Lind, and Lt. Col. Bernard 
Fisher, Medal of Honor winner. 



October 1969 



41 



How to send 
money 

to missionaries 

without 

transfer cost 




First Security Bank offers a special service for families or sponsors 
remitting funds to missionaries in the field. We provide either bank 
drafts for foreign destinations or cashier's checks free of charge, 
regardless of the amount — and they are cashable anywhere. 
Whether your missionary is in the United States or abroad you may 
safely send any amount required, and there are no delays because 
you send the bank draft or cashier's check yourself. Both are 
readily available at any one of our banking offices . There is a 
First Security Bank near you. 



For safe, sure and low cost handling of your own money, 
First Security provides: 

BANK MONEY ORDERS — ideal for people who have an 
occasional need to send money. They are redeemable anywhere, 
completely safe and cost considerably less than postal money orders. 

CHECKING ACCOUNTS — Choose either our REGULAR or 
pay-as-you-go CHECKWAY plans. A generous supply of checks 
comes with your name and address printed FREE with either 
account. Come in and see which is best for you. 

First Security Banks 



Members Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



42 



Improvement Era 



Its FairTimc! 

• It's fair time in some parts of the world ... a 
time when "all that's .good and all that's fair' 
is plaeed on exhibition. 

And not the least among the fair at any fair 
are youth whose "very memory is fair." "And 
fair and twice as fair" because they are the best 
of their kind, they who grow soundly in mind 
and body and spirit and emerge at the brink of 
full adulthood, products of all that is indeed 
fair and godly in man. 

In the phrase of poets, they are "wisely faire 



V-' 



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— "N 



and softe," "fair friend and never old," "wild 
and fair," "so lovely fair," "sae fresh and fair," 
"divinely fair," "so sweet pure fair," "young and 
so fair," "right and fair," "fair women and brave 
men." 

These fair-haired vouth move in a world made 
fairer by the labors of others and their own 
eyes behold it as a place most wonderful. In re~ 
turn they want a "fair adventure of tomorrow" 
with a fair chance to give their fair sha»e ai 
"if it prove fair" that all may fare yet 



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46 




By Lu Ann Gull, 15 

Illustrated by Ginger Brown 




Two Little Hands 



Hands can do so much to make 
life pleasant and happy, but they 
can also deal unjustly with another. 
God never intended that we use 
them to hurt our fellowmen. Hands 
are one of the most useful and im- 
portant creations of God. They 
carry out good or bad intentions and 
perform many tasks. 

The bishop uses his hands mostly 
to shake hands with each person 
who comes into the chapel. His 
hands make us feel welcome, loved, 
and secure. 

A carpenter's hands build houses 
—providing shelter for families and 
a living for his own. 

The hands of a bus driver or pilot 
of a plane get people where they 
want to go. 

A little child's hands clap with 
glee when he sees Santa Claus or 
when his mother comes to lift him 
from his crib in the morning. 

Hands can soothe hurt feelings, 
push baby carriages, do the break- 
fast dishes, plump pillows for a sick 



grandmother, and tenderly touch a 
little cheek as a soft goodnight is 
said. 

Hands can catch a fish, pull a little 
girl's ponytail, or trail a stick along 
Grandma's picket fence. 

God made hands to write a poem, 
paint a picture, fashion beautiful 
objects of art from wood and stone 
and metal, and play beautiful music. 

God made hands to administer 
to the sick and to hold babies while 
they are being named and blessed. 

God made hands to open doors, 
especially doors of opportunity and 
love and service. 

Hands turn the pages of the 
hymnbook, that we might sing 
praises to our God and offer prayers 
to him in sacred melody. 

The hands of the priesthood 
bearers break the bread and pour 
the water when the sacrament of 
our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, 
is blessed. Hands of the deacons 
bear these emblems of his suffering 
to us, that we might partake and 
renew our covenants with him. 

How grateful we should be for 
hands, especially for the hands of 
those who gave us the opportunity 
to come to this wonderful world in 
order to prove ourselves, who use 
their hands unceasingly and lovingly 
for our benefit. 

Think of the Savior's hands, 
pierced and bleeding for our sakes. 
How can we let our hands do wrong 
against one who loves us so dearly 
that he allowed these terrible things 
to happen to him, that we might 
live for all eternity in his presence? 

These hands are shaped like God's 

and so 
Let them be careful what they do. 



October 1969 



47 



The Girls 




The Bo/s! 



48 



Era of Youth 



Editor's note: In the May 1969 Era of Youth, the boys talked about the girls. 
This month, seven girls from southern California give us their candid opinions 
about the boys. Panel members, ranging in age from 15 to 18, are Loretta 
Wallace, seamstress; Linda Brown, pianist; Ann Carol Peterson, dancer; Kirn 
Bradshaw, cover girl tor Seventeen magazine; Peggy Howell, flute player; Jenneane 
Hale, member of the New Generation singing group; and Mary Lou Prince, organist. 



Moderator: The boys are anx- 
ious to hear from you, so now 
is your chance, girls! What do 
you like about the boys of to- 
day? 

jenneane: I like sincere boys — 
boys to whom I can really talk. 
They help me to understand 
things that girls can't, because 
boys see things from a different 
point of view. 

Loretta: I agree. Most girls like 
boys who are honest and un- 
derstanding. 

Ann Carol: It's more enjoyable 
being with boys who aren't 
concerned with the big ro- 
mance, but who just like to go 
out and have fun. 
Kim: Right! If a boy has a good 
sense of humor and makes a 
lively evening, then you enjoy 
being with him. 
Mary Lou: Boys who aren't shy 
and who handle themselves 
well around my parents usu- 
ally impress me . . . and my 
parents! 

Peggy: I like boys who aren't 
shy, too, and who try to have 
fun. Even if they're like me 
and can't do the new dances 
very well, they'll still try. 
Linda: I like boys who are 
sensitive. 

Moderator: How do you like a 
boy to express his sensitivity? 
Kim: Just by being honest and 
natural. 



Peggy: A boy can show 7 his 
sensitivity by his actions and 
by the way he treats a girl. But 
a boy who cries in a movie is 
something else! 

Loretta: I think boys can be 
emotional and still be mascu- 
line. 

Moderator: That brings up a 
good point. All boys can't be 
football players. How does this 
quality of masculinity express 
itself in a boy who doesn't play 
football? 

Linda: Every girl can't be a 
homecoming queen or a cheer- 
leader, but some boys think 
that's the greatest thing. As 
long as a boy finds some talent 
and works to develop it, he 
doesn't need to be a football 
player. 

Linda: If a boy is interested in 
something and becomes in- 
volved in it and is willing to put 
himself out for it, he can show 
his strength that way. 
Ann Carol: I think that a boy 
seems more masculine and 
makes a girl feel more feminine 
when he opens the door for her 
or helps her on with her coat — 
uses good manners. 
Peggy: I think a boy seems more 
masculine when he honors the 
priesthood that he bears. Then 
I can look up to him and de- 
pend on him. 
Ann Carol: Most girls like to be 



dependent. They want the boy 
to be stronger than they are. 
They need this security. 
Jenneane: That's so true! Many 
times a girl will try to get her 
own way when she really 
doesn't want it. She's just wait- 
ing for the boy to make the 
decision. 

Mary Lou: I don't like a boy 
who can only talk about him- 
self, his car, or other girlfriends. 
Peggy: I don't like boys who 
just say, "Well, what do you 
want to do?" and let me make 
all the decisions. I like boys 
who treat me like a lady and 
value my opinion, but they 
should be able to take a firm 
stand on things. 
Moderator: What about a boy's 
appearance? How do you feel 
about sideburns, mustaches, 
and hair length? 
Linda: I like sideburns and 
mustaches, but a boy's hair 
ought to be neat. 
Loretta: I don't like boys with 
long hair, especially when it's 
not clean. But I agree with 
Linda — sideburns and mus- 
taches are great if they look 
neat. 

Ann Carol: A boy should al- 
ways look neat and clean- 
shaven. Some boys look fantas- 
tic in sideburns, but a Beta cut 
is best. 

Moderator: What kinds of 
things do you like to do on a 
date if the boy has no money? 
Jenneane: Little things can be 
more fun than the big things. 
It's fun just to go driving or 
for walks. 
Linda: Little things mean more 



October 1969 



49 



sometimes because that's when 
you can talk and get to know 
the person. But if all you do is 
go for walks, you might feel 
that the boy's money is more 
important to him than taking 
you somewhere. 
Jenneane: The important thing 
is to do a lot of different things. 
Linda: And to do things with 
other people, too. 
Moderator: What about going 
to the "adult" or "restricted" 
movies? 

Mary Lou: I think a boy should 
read up and find out what the 
show is going to be like first 
and not take a girl to a show 
that would embarrass her. 
Kim: I'd feel so embarrassed if 
I were at one of those "re- 
stricted" movies and my date 
and I were shrinking in our 
seats. 

Moderator: What will you girls 
be looking for in a husband? Is 
it important that he live up to 
gospel principles and be a mem- 
ber of the Church? 
Ann Carol: I'll want a husband 
who will make the Church an 
important part of his life but 
not more important than his 
family. 

Linda: The Church is so im- 
portant to me. I would like to 
see a boy who is very strong 
and masculine praying to his 
Heavenly Father, because it 
shows his humility. It shows 
that he realizes there is some- 
one much greater than himself. 
Jenneane: I think each of us 
wants to marry a boy who be- 
lieves in the Church, because 
that's the way we've been 



raised. I want to be married in 
the temple, and I admire a boy 
who decides what he believes is 
right and then sticks to it, no 
matter what. 

Mary Lou: I admire the boy 
who honors the priesthood 
and will stand up for it, even 
when those outside the Church 
are trying to cut him down for 
honoring it. 

Moderator: Why is the priest- 
hood so important to you as 
girls? What difference does 
this make to you now as well 
as when you are married? 
Loretta: I like the security of 
knowing that there's someone 
in the family with the power 
to administer to the sick if 
there is a need. 

Jenneane: I agree. Boys can be 
sure of themselves in ways that 
girls don't have the power to 
be. We need the strength of 
the priesthood in making de- 
cisions. 

Moderator: Would you all like 
to leave one last word of advice 
for the boys to help them get 
along better with girls? 
Linda: Be yourself. 
Peggy: Think of others and be 
understanding. 

Ann Carol: Just have fun and 
try not to be self-conscious. 
Kim: Don't act petty or small 
about things. 
Jenneane: Be honest. 
Mary Lou: And sincere. 
Loretta: Be honest and under- 
standing with yourself and with 
others around you, and work 
toward your profession. 
Linda: Care about somebody 
more than yourself. 



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50 



Delighting intheScriplures 



By Elaine Cannon 

Illustrated by Ginger Brown 



There are those who are skilled in the scrip- 
tures. They can recite them at the drop of an 
opportunity. They use them with facility and 
quote them at great length. They may be wise 
in the application of the word of God as well as 
in knowing chapter and verse. 

Most of us need help in finding which princi- 
ples of our Heavenly Father relate to certain 
situations. We can't readily turn to the counsel 
that gives us the direction or the answer to our 
needs. We'd be glad to obey his commandment 
or heed his word when we stand at a crossroad 
if we could only recall what the Lord has said 
in such matters. Too often w ? e "lean on the arm. 
of flesh" instead of the word of God. 

Believing as we do in a loving, caring God 
whose wisdom far outshines our own, let's con- 
sider some of his advice to us in key areas of 
our lives. 

What About Directions? 

"If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of 
God, that giveth to all men liberally, and up- 
braideth not; and it shall be given him." 
(James 1:5.) 

If there is some wisdom you lack, a point of 
decision in your life, a question in your mind, 
some direction you need, where better can you 
go for help than (as the scriptures suggest) to 
God? He has the answers. His will is for your 
benefit. 



What About Success? 

"Cease to be idle; cease to be unclean; cease 
to find fault with one another; cease to sleep 
longer than is needful; retire to thy bed early, 
that ye may not be weary; arise early, that your 
bodies and minds may be invigorated." (D&C 
88:124.) 

Sounds as if it were written especially for 
teenagers! But when you follow that counsel 
and heed this promise, your measure of success 
is assured: ". . . if you do keep his command- 
ments he doth bless you and prosper you." 
(Mosiah 2:22.) 



What About Endurance? 

"But blessed are they who are faithful and 
endure, whether in life or in death, for they shall 
inherit eternal life." (D&C 50:5.) 

You can put up with the fear or unpleasant- 
ness of a stint in the armed services; you can 
withstand agonizing temptation; you can be 
patient in waiting, if you let your mind and 
heart dwell upon the ultimate joy of eternal life. 
That means dwelling in the presence of Heavenly 
Father, who is perfect in love and kindness and 
forgiveness and understanding. 



A Letter 

from a 
Son 




The attached letter from PFC (now Corporal) William 
George Hardy to his parents was referred to us from 
the office of President David O. McKay. With it was a 
letter from Bishop Robert S. Wilkinson of El Cajon 
Ward, San Diego Stake, to President McKay, explaining 
that Elder Hardy had voluntarily deferred a long-planned 
mission to. accept induction into military service, and 
that in the Marine Corps he had been highly successful 
in combining service to his country with service to his 
Heavenly Father. The editors are proud to share with 
readers of the Era of Youth the lofty spirit of patriotism, 
courage, and faith of this representative young hero. 
Bill's father, Warren G. Hardy, is in the bishopric of 
El Cajon Ward; one brother currently serves in the Nor- 
wegian Mission, and another brother has been honorably 
discharged after service in the Marine Corps. 

16 June 1969 

Hi, 

By the time you get this letter I'll be in Guam 
Hospital and you'll know why. I want to tell you 
how it happened. My squad was traveling 
through paddies and some hamlets. We had 
just come through a tree line when we came 
under small arms fire. I started to run down a 
path that all but five in the squad had traveled 
on. Then it happened. I set off a command- 
detonated 105 MM round. 

In about 20 minutes I was medivaced to Da 
Nang. I was immediately operated on along 
with four other Marines who got hit by schrap- 
nel. When I got here I asked a commander 
about the exact extent of my wounds. He said 
I would lose my right leg just above the knee. 



and I might lose my left foot. Well, that's the 
truth about what I did lose. 

Today I head for Guam, which is very un- 
usual, because men who aren't hit half as bad 
as I was usually stay here four or five days. The 
doctor said my operation went so smooth that it 
was just short of a miracle and that my instant 
comeback was greater than that — nobody here 
can believe it. An LDS boy helped me get ready; 
he's an elder — it was a real comfort having him 
near. A colonel took pictures of me and my 
Purple Heart medal which he presented. They 
were taken not much more than 20 hours after 
I got hit. 

Mom, I don't want you to cry about or feel 
sorry that I came into the Corps now just because 
of this. I feel fine, and losing my leg doesn't 
bother me one bit (once in awhile I have some 
pain, but not much). I feel deeply honored to 
wear the nation's oldest decoration. 

Two more colonels and a first lieutenant came 
in just now 7 . You know what?— I got a Bronze 
Star with Combat V and also lance corporal. I 
feel deeply honored to be able to receive this 
recognition; this is a big day in my life. 

I know that you are pleased with my actions. 
I feel I've done my best for my country, and I 
wouldn't trade places with anybody for any- 
thing in the w 7 orld. I'm leaving here in a few 
minutes. I'll write when I get to Guam. 

Your loving son, 
Bill 



52 



Era of Youth 





The 

Era of Youth 

Honors 

Kristan 

Clair 

Sparte 



• It was a proud night for Kristan Sparks and for many others 
when this 15-year-old Mormon Eagle Scout Explorer from Ammon 
(Idaho) Second Ward stood in the spotlight before 50,000 Scouts 
and Scouters at the Seventh National Boy Scout Jamboree at 
Farragut, Idaho, and was honored for his heroism. Boyhood, 
manhood, and humanity all rose a notch on the scale of virtue, 
and so did Kristan 's family, church, and country. He was the 
only person so honored at the Jamboree. 

In June 1967, Kristan (then 13) and another boy, James 
Black, were helping Kristan's uncle, Bryle G. Walker, in insect 
control work in the Targhee National Forest, when Mr. Walker 
was attacked by a grizzly bear and severely bitten and clawed. 
When they heard his cries the two boys, without thought of their 
own safety, drew the bear's attention to them. Kristan, present- 
ing himself as a target for the ferocious animal, was attacked 
and his arm terribly torn. The bear then turned to James, whom 
he also injured severely before leaving the three. 

In intense pain, Kristan ran more than two miles through 
the forest to get help, returning with a rescue team to find his 
seriously injured companions still alive. More than 300 stitches 
were required to repair the wounds of Bryle Walker, and all 
three were hospitalized for a lengthy period. 

For his selfless courage, Kristan was awarded the coveted 
Carnegie Hero Bronze Medal and a check for $500.00, and his 
brave act was selected from among many others to be honored 
at the National Boy Scout Jamboree. 

Very active in his ward, priesthood quorum, and Explorer 
post, Kristan Sparks is a worthy example of the truth that in 
each of God's children are the resources to meet crisis and diffi- 
culty with courage, if we will develop and express them. O 



October 1969 53 




Oct up 

and at it- 
It's 
Contest 
Time! 



• It's contest time! Wish we could share the warm responses 
that winners of the 1969 Youth Writing Contest have sent us. 
They're that glad they entered. And won. 

Winning is a real possibility. But you have to enter first. 
Smart young writers remember that it's a youth writing contest 
sponsored by the Era of Youth, a magazine for young readers. 
So judging is on the basis of good writing and appropriateness 
for this particular publication. Read back issues for ideas. Then 
put your own thoughts down on paper in story form (keep it 
around 500-1,000 words) or poetry or in a how-to-do-something 
style. But do enter. You'll be glad you did. 



Contest Rules 



1. Contest is open to anyone who is a 
senior in high school or under 25. 

2. Winner must be in a position to ac- 
cept the college scholarship for the 
fall of 1970. 3. A pen name must be 
used on each entry. 4. Each entry must 
have a sealed envelope attached with 
the author's real name, pen name, age, 
address, and photograph included. Also 
include a statement that this is your 
own original work. 5. Specify which 
college contest you want to compete 
in. (Continental U.S. residents are not 



eligible for the Church College of Hawaii 
scholarships but may compete for 
scholarships to either Brigham Young 
University at Provo, Utah, or Ricks Col- 
lege, Rexburg, Idaho.) 6. Your entry can- 
not be returned. 7. You may submit as 
many entries as you like, but each must 
have its own envelope of information 
(see rule 3). 8. DEADLINE: Entries 
must be mailed to the Era of Youth 
Writing Contest, 79 South State Street, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111, postmarked 
by midnight December 31, 1969. 



54 



Era of Youth 



Should we cover it 
or cover it up? 





■F 










"If broadcasting would only stop showing all that bad news, maybe we wouldn't have 
so much of it". Sound Familiar? Think of the questions it raises: 

If Broadcast News disregard slums in the city, should it also disregard United 
States Rocketry? Drug Abuse? Political activities? Crime? Successful rescue attempts? 
Who will be the censor to tell us what news should be covered and what news should 
be covered up? Would covering up a bad situation remove it? Or make it worse? 

The answers are found in our tradition of a free press guaranteed by the First 
Amendment to the Constitution. It recognizes that you have the right to know — the 
bad as well as the good. 

Only a public that knows the facts can make wise decisions. That's why KSL has 
the largest, most experienced, and professional news team in Western America ... to 
keep you informed. 

KSL . . . THE FIRST WORD IN NEWS! 



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October 1969 



55 



"C 



The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About: 



THEIR 
BISHOP 



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By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 



• Clement of Alexandria recorded 
an apocryphal story that was 
"handed down and preserved in 
memory." It concerns an incident 
involving the apostle John. During 
one of his missionary journeys, 
John met a young man in whom 
he took personal interest. After 
having spent some time in that 
area, John departed, leaving with 
the leaders involved a charge to 
watch over this young man. 

Not long afterward, John was 
recalled to the city. Upon his ar- 
rival he inquired about his young 
friend. He was told the young man 
was dead. "How and by what 
death?" John demanded. 

The answer came: "He is dead 
to God! For he has turned out 
wicked and desperate, and to sum 
up all, a brigand; and now, in- 
stead of the Church he has seized 
the mountain, with followers like 
himself." 

John then asked for a horse. 
"Instantly ... he rode away . . . 
from the Church and arriving at 



56 




the brigands' outposts, was cap- 
tured without fight or resistance, 
but crying, 'For this I have come. 
Lead me to your chief.' The chief 
awaited him in his armor, but when 
he recognized John as he ap- 
proached, he was struck with 
shame and turned to fly [flight]. 
But John pursued him as fast as 
he could, forgetful of his age, cry- 
ing out, 'Why my son, dost thou 
fly [flee] from thine own father, 
unarmed, aged as he is? Pity me, 
. . . fear not . . . stay! believe! 
Christ sent me.' But he on hearing 
these words first stood with down- 
cast gaze, then flung away his 
arms, then trembling, began to 
weep bitterly, and embraced the 
old man when he came up to him, 
pleading with his groans, ... but 
the apostle pledging himself . . . 
led him back to the Church and 
praying for him . . . and wrestling 
with him in earnest fastings . . . 
did not depart, as they say, till he 
restored him to the bosom of the 
Church." (St. Clement of Alex- 
andria, Quis Divinitus Salv., 
Chapter 42.) 

This is a moving illustration of 
the concern for the youth of 
the Church that existed even in the 
time of the early apostles. In the 
Church today, the concern for the 
youth is just as personal and just 
as intense. Concerning this inter- 
est, the calling of bishop has spe 
cial significance. He is president 
of the Aaronic Priesthood and, as 
such, has a special charge and 
concern for both the young men 
and the young women of the ward. 

The youth of the Church have 
the responsibility of staying close 
to their bishop, heeding his coun- 
sel, and honoring his leadership. 
The calling of bishop is a very 
important and sacred calling in the 



Church, and the men who are 
called as bishops are special men. 
They are men whom the Lord has 
called through his appointed ser- 
vants. And while they may have 
daily occupations as plumbers, 
farmers, teachers, or doctors, they 
are men called of God. 

Paul outlined the characteristics 
of a bishop. He wrote: 

"A bishop then must be blame- 
less, . . . vigilant, sober, of good 
behaviour, given to hospitality, apt 
to teach; 

"Not given to wine, no striker, 
not greedy of filthy lucre; but pa- 
tient, not a brawler, not covetous; 

"One that ruleth well his own 
house, having his children in sub- 
jection with all gravity; 

"(For if a man know not how to 
rule his own house, how shall he 
take care of the church of God?) 

"Not a novice, lest being lifted 
up with pride he fall into the con- 
demnation of the devil. 

"Moreover he must have a good 
report of them which are without; 
lest he fall into reproach and the 
snare of the devil." (1 Tim. 3:2-7.) 

Bishops today also should be 
blameless, vigilant, sober, of good 
behavior, given to hospitality, apt 
to teach, and patient. They are 
men who can be approached with 
personal problems or questions; 
they are men of inspiration and 
wisdom. They are dedicated men. 
They spend many, many hours a 
week devoted totally to their call- 
ing. A bishop is the spiritual 
father of the ward, charged with 
the care of the needy, responsible 
for the finances of the ward, and 
common judge among his people. 
His calling is most important and 
most sacred. 

To function effectively, a bishop 
needs the loyalty and confidence of 



the youth of his ward. Sustaining 
your bishop is not only a sacred 
obligation; it is also an opportun- 
ity. In the Book of Mormon we 
read of Lehi's request to his sons 
to return to Jerusalem to obtain 
the plates from Laban. Speaking to 
his son Nephi, Lehi said: 

"Wherefore, the Lord hath com- 
manded me that thou and thy 
brothers should go unto the house 
of Laban, and seek the records, 
and bring them down hither into 
the wilderness. 

"And now, behold thy brothers 
murmur, saying it is a hard thing 
which I have required of them; but 
behold I have not required it of 
them, but it is a commandment of 
the Lord. 

"Therefore go, my son, and 
thou shalt be favored of the Lord, 
because thou hast not murmured. 

"And it came to pass that I, 
Nephi, said unto my father: I will 
go and do the things which the 
Lord hath commanded, for I know 
that the Lord giveth no command- 
ments unto the children of men, 
save he shall prepare a way for 
them that they may accomplish 
the thing which he commandeth 
them. 

"And it came to pass that when 
my father had heard these words 
he was exceeding glad, for he 
knew that I had been blessed of 
the Lord." (1 Ne. 3:4-8.) 

The young man or woman who 
is obedient, without murmuring, 
to the counsel of his or her bishop 
will, like Nephi, reap the blessings 
promised those who follow the 
counsel of the Lord's appointed 
servants. The bishop of your ward 
is interested in your welfare; he 
is concerned about you. Listen to 
his counsel and you will find him 
to truly be a man called of God. O 



October 1969 



57 



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58 



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A. On the very first day you go to the 
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Improvement Era 



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choose the 

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A. If you choose a Family Plan, your 
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SEND IT TO: PROTECTION PLUS AGENCY, 150 East Seventh South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 
BE SURE TO ENCLOSE $1 WITH YOUR ENROLLMENT FORM 



APPLICATION TO COMMUNITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, PORTLAND, ME. 
For The Extra Income Health & Accident Plan-CH 36 -A 



NAME (Please Print) 

ADDRESS 

CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



OCCUPATION . 



.DATE OF BIRTH 



AGE. 



I also hereby apply for coverage for the members of my family listed below(DO NOT INCLUDE NAME THAT APPEARS ABOVE) 



NAME (Please Print) 



RELATIONSHIP SEX DATE OF BIRTH AGE 



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SIGNATURE 



Be sure to Enclose $1 with your Enrollment Form 



October 1969 



59 



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Today's Family 



Soup'sOn 

By Eleanor Knowles 

Editorial Associate 

• A favorite memory of childhood is of coming home 
on a chilly day to a lunch or supper of hearty homemade 
soup served with slices of bread still warm from the oven. 
No matter where you live— northern or southern hemi- 
sphere, east or west — soup can provide the basis for nourish- 
ing and delicious meals. 

In Grandmother's day, preparing soup often meant 
long hours spent over a hot stove, cooking the stock and 
then adding vegetables, barley, and other ingredients, and 
letting them simmer until a thick meal-in-a-dish resulted. 
Today, thanks to economical and tasty frozen, dried, and 
canned products, it is possible to prepare soup in a matter 
of minutes — and have it turn out every bit as good as 
Grandmother's. 

Soup is a versatile dish. It can be a main course or an 
appetizer. It's good hot on a cold day or cold on a warm 
day. It can be made with meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, 
pasta products, even fruits. It may be thick and creamy 
or light and clear. Here are some favorite recipes for using 
"ingredients from scratch," including basic soup stock, 
and for quick soups from products on the pantry shelf. 



60 



Beef Stock 

4 pounds beef, cubed 
4 tablespoons butter or margarine 
iy 2 pounds marrow bone 
3 quarts water 
1 tablespoon salt 
3 stalks celery with tops 



6 sprigs parsley 

2 medium-size onions, diced 
4 whole cloves 

1 bay leaf 

3 carrots, pared and cut up 

Brown beef cubes in butter or margarine 



Improvement Era 



in deep kettle. Add marrow bone and 
water; cover. Bring to boiling and boil 
5 minutes. Skim top of liquid. Reduce 
heat and simmer 1 hour, skimming top 
occasionally. Add remaining ingredients. 
Cover; simmer 2 hours longer. Strain, 
cool, and chill. 



Ground-Beef Soup 

1 pound ground beef 

1 cup chopped onions 

4 cups hot water 

1 cup diced carrot 

1 cup diced potato 

1 cup diced celery 

2 tablespoons salt 
y 2 teaspoon pepper 



1 bouillon cube 
1 bay leaf 

6 whole fresh tomatoes, peeled and 
quartered 

Brown beef slowly in hot fat in heavy 
kettle. Add onions and cook 5 minutes. 
Loosen meat from bottom of kettle. 
Add remaining ingredients, except to- 
matoes; bring to boil. Cover and 
simmer 20 minutes. Add tomatoes, and 
simmer 10 minutes longer. Makes 6 
servings. 

American Minestrone 

2 tablespoons olive oil or butter 
iy 2 cups thinly sliced vegetables* 






quart boiling water, consomme or 
beef stock 
sprig parsley 
bay leaf 

teaspoon thyme 
Salt and pepper to taste 
y 2 cup elbow macaroni or spaghetti 

Saute vegetables in oil or butter 15 
minutes. Add remaining ingredients, 
and boil 5 minutes. Then reduce heat 
and simmer 30 minutes. Sprinkle each 
serving generously with grated Parme- 
san cheese. Serves 3 or 4. 



*Any combination of tomatoes, celery, car- 
rots, onions, turnips, cabbage, peas, green 
peppers, potatoes, zucchini, leeks, green 
beans may be used. 




It's U and I . . . grown nearby! 



October 1969 



61 



The best things in life are real. 



The real things in life just can't be beaten. After 
all, what could be better than the real cakes you bake 
from scratch? Nothing. 

But it does take longer at a time when life's a lot 
more hurried than it used'to be. 

That's why Fleischmann's developed the new 
Rapidmix method. It makes baking the real thing 
quicker and easier than ever before. 



Because you no longerhavetodissolve the yeast, 
worry about water temperature or heat the bowl. 

Now you just blend Fleischmann's Yeast with 
your other dry ingredients, mix — and bake one of the 
best things in life. A light, tasty cake. The real thing. 

For 70 real thing recipes, including the Babka 
below, send 250 for "Fleischmann's New Treasury of 
Yeast Baking", Box 61E, Mt. Vernon, N.Y. 10559. 



* 







flMSchmawft 






/ 



Ik, 1 
'1Kb 







!«PS»S 



** 




4jr 



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NtTWT 



1/4 0Z 



Veast 




Chicken Broth 

1 stewing chicken (4-6 pounds) 

2 medium-size onions, diced 

3 stalks celery with tops 

1 carrot, pared and diced 

2 tablespoons chopped parsley 
1 teaspoon salt 

1 bay leaf 
Vi teaspoon pepper or 6 peppercorns 

Wash chicken thoroughly. Put in a large 
kettle, and cover with water. Bring to 
boiling; reduce heat, and skim. Add 
remaining ingredients. Cover, and sim- 
mer iy 2 to 2 hours or until chicken is 
tender. Remove chicken, and cut meat 
from bones, to be used in recipes call- 
ing for cooked chicken. Strain broth; 
cool and chill. Remove fat from top. 
Serve hot as broth or use as a base 
for soups, sauces, and gravies. 

French Onion Soup 

6 medium-size onions, sliced 

2 tablespoons butter or margarine 

6y 2 cups beef broth 
y 2 teaspoon salt 

Melba toast rounds 

Grated Parmesan cheese 

Saute onions in butter or margarine in 
large saucepan until lightly browned. 
Add beef broth; cover and cook 15 to 
20 minutes or until onions are tender. 
Add salt. To serve, bring soup to boil- 
ing; ladle into soup bowls or cups. Top 
each with melba toast and Parmesan 
cheese. Makes 8 servings. 

Quick Vegetable Soup 

Dilute one 10V2-ounce can bouillon or 
consomme as directed on can. Add l / 2 
package frozen mixed vegetables, 
cooked, or one lOV^-ounce can mixed 
vegetables, 2 tablespoons minced pars- 
ley, and 1 tablespoon butter. Cover 
and cook slowly until vegetables are 
heated through. Makes 4 servings. 

Quick Russian Borsch 

Dilute one 1014-ounce can bouillon as 
directed on can. Add 2 finely shredded 
small raw beets, 2 tablespoons chopped 
onion, and 1 cup finely shredded cab- 
bage. Bring to boiling and simmer 10 
minutes. Serve hot or cold, topped 
with a spoonful of sour cream. Makes 4 
servings. 

Quick Crabmeat Bisque 



Combine one lO^^ounce can pea soup 
and one lOV^-ounce can tomato soup. 
Add y 2 cup rich milk and one 6y 2 - 
ounce can crabmeat, flaked. Heat 
slowly over low heat. Makes 6 servings. 



Quick Oyster Stew 

Heat 2 cups milk and y 2 cup cream to 
boiling. Heat 1 pint oysters (with 
oyster liquid), Vi cup butter, 1 teaspoon 
salt, a dash each of pepper and cay- 
enne, and 1 teaspoon Worcestershire 
sauce. Pour into hot milk and serve at 
once. Makes 4 servings. O 



October 1969 



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63 



.,iii.'Ai«Ci 



-';■'- '{■W'" : ^:-i; 



Illustrated by JoJyn Borges 




Eamily Table Tklk 



By Annie Laurie Von Tungeln 



• "But I have to talk to get my 
'thinks' out," a little girl stated 
emphatically. Her mother, fearful 
that she was bothering the passen- 
gers on a crowded bus, had gently 
admonished her not to chatter so 
much. 

Good communication should be 
a goal for all of us. As individuals 
we need not only to express our- 
selves but also to listen to other 
folks' "thinks." This should also be 
one of the basic goals in family life. 
Good communication leads to un- 
derstanding, which has been called 
"the solvent of conflict." 

Although there are various forms 
of communication, such as facial 
expressions, gestures, and use of the 
eyes, speech is the most common 
and important. The Master himself 
recognized this truth when he 
stated that what goes into the 
mouth is less important than what 
comes out of it. (See Matt. 15:11.) 

The natural habitat for talk is 
the room in which the family eats, 
whether it be a stately dining room, 
intimate breakfast room, or a nook 
in the kitchen. Members of the 



family are generally at their great- 
est ease, both physically and emo- 
tionally, while seated around the 
table, particularly at the evening 
meal. The common objective, eat- 
ing, is relaxing and enjoyable; and 
there are fewer distractions than at 
inost other times of the day. This is 
the time and place when family 
living is, or can be, at its best. 

Although there are times when 
a child needs to talk alone with 
one or both parents, the best kind 
of table talk is group conversation 
in which every member of the fam- 
ily takes part. No one hides behind 
a newspaper, completely absorbed. 
No one is glued to TV, eating a 
solitary dinner served on a tray. 
There is pleasant give-and-take; 
this means listening as well as 
talking. 

Much human-interest talk is im- 
portant. Members of the family 
tell about the activities of the day— 
their personal successes and dis- 



appointments. Maybe someone 
tells a joke or an interesting anec- 
dote. 

Some families set up a certain 
routine: a discussion of public is- 
sues, or an account by each member 
of the most interesting thing that 
has happened to him during the 
day. Such a procedure can be 
pleasant if it is not formalized or 
carried to an extreme. ( Many times 
the charm and worth of an inter- 
change come from its spontaneity.) 
Other families make occasions of 
their dinner, building up rituals 
that eventually become traditions. 

The most important thing is to 
make dinner a pleasant occasion 
when each one feels free to be 
himself— to open up his heart and 
disclose what is near to him. Legend 
tells us that in the days of King 
Arthur, to express the idea of hav- 
ing a heart-to-heart talk with some- 
one, a person might make the 
felicitous statement, "I discovered 



Annie Laurie Von Tungeln, of Tulsa, Oklahoma, is a widely published author 
and poet. She has received the Freedoms Foundation Medal of Honor and 
is a four-time first-place winner in National League of Pen Women contests. 



64 



Improvement Era 



myself unto him." Such sharing is 
precious in the home. 

Children pick up a wealth of in- 
formation from table conversation— 
though it's not the time for a 
parental lecture or superimposed 
instruction of any kind. Teaching 
and learning grow naturally out of 
the situation. "Where do cran- 
berries come from, Mommy?" may 
be an occasion to tell the child 
something about how the berries 
are grown. "What does pasteurized 
mean, Daddy?" presents an oppor- 
tunity to acquaint the questioner 
with the great Louis Pasteur, who 
contributed so greatly to a process 
that has doubtless saved many lives. 

Table talk furnishes not only fun, 
companionship, and nourishment 
for the mind and soul; it is also one 
of the most effective ways of exer- 
cising social control of the young. 

Children need to be taught di- 
rectly and consciously. "Did you 
notice how quickly Bobby put on 
his coat when his mother told him 
it was time to go home? I like such 
promptness, and I hope you will 
do the same when I take you calling 
with me." By such a statement a 
mother tries to indoctrinate her 
child with the ideas of punctuality 
and obedience. 

But probably the osmosis or in- 
fluence of family living is even more 
important than deliberate efforts to 
teach. Children readily absorb at- 
titudes and patterns of behavior 
from family conversations. As a 
youngster acquires vocabulary, he 
is at the same time acquiring feel- 
ings associated with certain words. 

A friend of mine says that when 
she was a child, the very mention 
of the word Republican made her 
usually placid father furious, and 
she was almost grown before she 
realized that there are decent, law- 
abiding Republicans as well as 
Democrats. Such "emotionally 
loaded" words may affect children's 
concepts and conduct. *■ 



October 1969 



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Can definite things be done to 
improve family conversation? Cer- 
tainly. Analysis of the content and 
implications of talk in the home is 
the first step. 

Research indicates that listening 
to a recording of family conversa- 
tion that has been taped over a 
period of time is often helpful in 
determining the general trend. 
( Studies show that table talk tends 
to fall into very different patterns 
in different families.) A recording 
can point out positive and negative 
biases. It shows if any member is 
monopolizing the conversation or if 
there is general participation. It 
indicates whether there is a spirit of 
cheerfulness or complaint; of thank- 
fulness or ingratitude; of humor or 
dourness. Above all, it gives an ac- 
curate picture of the love and 
respect— or lack of it— that members 
of the family have for each other. 

A conscious awareness, whether 
made possible by a tape recording 
or by intensive listening and ob- 
servation, can lead to setting up 
better standards. 

When the Roberts family played 
back the recording that had been 
made over a period of a week, they 
found that one child was almost 
completely left out of the mealtime 
conversation just because she was 
younger and less aggressive than 
the other two, who bubbled over 
gaily about the activities of the day. 
The parents talked the matter over 
with Sam and Sally, who were very 
cooperative as soon as they realized 
that their shy little sister was over- 
awed., by: them. Although they did 
not insist on Anita's talking, every 
member ef the family made a defi- 
nite effort from then on to draw her 
into the conversations. They asked 
her opinions now and then and en- 
couraged her to tell about the do- 
ings of the day. Soon they found 
that she genuinely liked to con- 
tribute to the dinner talk. 

Another family learned from their 



Improvement Era 



recorded conversations that they 
were over-critical. The parents 
criticized the children's table man- 
ners. The children found fault with 
each other. All of them made dis- 
paraging remarks about a neighbor 
family. Even the mother (the only 
one who knew of the hidden tape 
recorder) indulged in a sarcastic 
exchange of words with her hus- 
band. 

Looking at each other in shame 
as the telltale words were repeated, 
the whole family resolved to do 
an about-face. Soon they found 
that chatter about the doings of 
the day was not only more in- 
formative and uplifting but also 
more fun than harping on someone's 
faults. 

Some families find that occa- 
sional guests add spice to a meal. 
They can enrich the conversation 
and help children learn to converse 
with persons outside the immediate 
home circle. 

One family of my acquaintance 



has a "pretend" company dinner 
now and then. It started as a re- 
hearsal for guests, but the children 
like it so much that it has continued. 
Members of the family dress up. 
The menu is a bit more elaborate 
than usual, the best dishes are 
used, and there are candles on the 
table. The special decorum appeals 
to the children, whose mother says 
there has never been an upset glass 
of milk at one of these dinners! 

Probably nothing can improve 
family conversation so much as 
gratitude— to the one who prepared 
the meal, usually the mother; to the 
earthly provider, usually the father; 
above all, to the great Giver of all 
good things. Bringing our Heaven- 
ly Father into the family picture by 
thanking him aloud sets the tone 
for the meal. 

Since communication is so essen- 
tial to the creation and continuance 
of satisfying relations in the home, 
every effort to improve family con- 
versation is worthwhile. O 



Old Salt Lake Theatre 
By Alice Morrey Bailey 

This house, erected in a wilderness, 

Was mason-strong, and silk-and-velvet fine, 

Noble in appointments and design 

To fill a frontier people's needs, express 

Their pride and cultured talents, gently bless 

Their sacrifice. Here tense or pithy line 

Leased pent-up tears, erased the coyote's whine, 

And laughter-thinned their long-endured duress. 

Here came the great in drama's mighty art 

To play their varied roles, each one a part 

Of mightier drama, entrance, exit, caught 

In history to weave a master-plot — 

And those within whose hearts these memories 

Will never let this old, loved building die. 



lie 



October 1969 




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By an Anonymous Church Member 

• June 6, 1969, is my anniversary date 
of 21 years of activity in the Church. 
The motivation for writing this article 
is found in my desire to thank my Heav- 
enly Father in a tangible manner for his 
great blessings bestowed upon me since 
I was 18 years of age, and in a desire 
to make observations from my experi- 
ences that may stimulate priesthood and 
auxiliary teachers and leaders to never 
"write off" any person under their influ- 
ence. For obvious reasons, my name is 
not used. The fact that the following 
story actually happened is more im- 
portant than to whom it happened. 

If my experiences are typical, then it 
can be concluded that the process of 
dropping out is not a sudden or rapid 
experience. Rather, it is a fairly lengthy 
process that begins at quite an early age. 
The dropping-out process is not merely 
confined to quitting school; it applies 
equally to church, society, and home. 

My breaking point with the Church 
came at age 11 or 12, when my older 
nonmember and inactive friends made 
it quite clear that Scouting and priest- 
hood activities were not activities in 
which they, and consequently I, would 
participate. Up to this age I had been 



Improvement Era 






Illustrated by Jerry Harston 



sent, not taken, to church. My father had never 
attended priesthood meeting, nor was he ever active 
enough in the Church to receive the Melchizedek 
Priesthood. In view of these conditions, it was easy 
for me to drop out of church. 

Dropping out of school was a lengthy process. Start- 
ing around the fourth grade, I can distinctly recall 
feigning illness to stay home. During my junior high 
school years, evening employment in a roller skating 
rink caused me to lose much sleep. This intensified 
my already established habit of feigning illness to 
stay home and sleep. I just managed to meet the 
minimum requirements for graduation from junior 
high school. 

In the fall of my first year in high school, at age 
16, I went deer hunting, even though it was expressly 
forbidden by the school. As I was leaving my 
home, the phone rang. When I answered it, the 
assistant principal asked me why I wasn't in school. 
My answer was rather crudely put: I was going to go 
deer hunting, and if she didn't like it, that was just 
too bad! She replied that if I did go hunting, I would 
be kicked out of school. She fulfilled her threat by 
removing me from school, and this gave me a sense 
of relief. 

My departure from the mainstream of society was 
an outgrowth of my previous experiences. One night 
when I was in junior high, some of my older friends 
and I decided to see if we could find any unlocked 
parked cars near a dance hall. We found such a car 



and stole from it a woman's purse, containing a com- 
pact and cigarette holder. 

The next day, while sluffing school, a friend and I 
were picked up by a police officer. He checked us in 
at the police station. There our pockets were emptied, 
showing the compact and cigarette holder. The woman 
from whom we had stolen these items had reported 
the loss to the police; thus, we were caught red- 
handed. I was fined $75.00 for car prowling. My 
parents were not allowed to pay the fine; I could not 
do so myself during the next year, because by then 
I had quit school, and since I had no high school 
education, work was unavailable to me. 

Finally, after a year my probation officer con- 
fronted me with three alternatives: (1) Pay the fine. 
This I could not do. (2) Be sent to the state industrial 
training school for delinquents. (3) Volunteer to 
attend a special camp in which I could work at a 
military installation during the day and live in bar- 
racks with other boys who were not quite bad enough 
to be sent to the industrial school, yet did not have 
adequate home situations. I chose alternative three, 
and by this decision my dropping out of society was 
complete. 

The dropping out of home began in late grade 
school and early high school, when every weekend 
in the summer was spent camping and fishing with 
older boys. Before entering the training camp at age 16, 
I had made one serious attempt to run away from 
home. It resulted in failure. When I left the training 



October 1969 



69 



The first connecting link 
in my return to church was 
a person of my own age who 
was genuinely interested in me' 



camp, rather than return return home, I lived in the 
home of a widow, the mother of a former girlfriend. 
This woman was not LDS. However, she gave me 
more of a Christian home influence than I had received 
in my own home. 

At age 17 I left this situation and went to Yellow- 
stone Park to work. After that summer of 1947, I 
returned to my parents' home, having been away 
well over one year. I then worked at a variety of jobs 
and began to drink heavily. During this time home 
was merely a place to sleep and sometimes to eat. 

It was while I was in this condition that Heavenly 
Father sent the gospel to me, which proved to be the 
cure for my dropping out and which reinstated me 
in church, society, home, and school. 

On Sunday morning, June 6, 1948, a priest in the 
Aaronic Priesthood, by assignment from the quorum 
adviser, was sent to my home to invite me to church. 
I had been drinking the night before and was trying 
to overcome a hangover by drinking some beer. In 
somewhat of a stupor, I responded affirmatively to his 
invitation to go to priesthood meeting the following 
Sunday, I went and was warmly fellowshiped, which 
helped me from that point on to be a one hundred 
percenter at all church meetings. However, I also 
tried to keep up my old friendships, and this caused 
me real mental anguish, because I wouldn't miss 
church meetings, yet I continued to drink and smoke 
with my old friends. Finally, after nine months of 
earnest prayer and a particularly frightening experience 
with alcohol, I quit drinking and have never touched 
another drop since then. 

By the fall of 1948 (three months after becoming 
active in the Church), I had learned the emphasis 
the Church places on education, and I returned to 
school. Because of my newfound desire for education, 
I was graduated among the top ten students of my class 



in a large metropolitan high school. I also enrolled 
in seminary and had choice learning experiences under 
spiritual giants. 

During this time my parents agreed to have a bless- 
ing at our meals, which I usually had to offer. After 
high school graduation I fulfilled a mission. There- 
after my life took the course of a typical returned 
missionary: college, temple marriage, children, mili- 
tary service, a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, 
and finally a good position in a profession. Parallel to 
these activities, I have had the opportunity to give 
service in the Church as a teacher in the priesthood 
and auxiliary organizations, Sunday School superin- 
tendent, district missionary, branch president, elders 
quorum president, stake MIA superintendent, and 
stake high councilor. 

Readers may ask, Which is better, to have strayed 
and returned or to have stayed faithful and never 
wandered? The parable of the prodigal son (Luke 
15:11-32) gives the answer very clearly. It is better 
not to stray. My personal experiences tell me that I 
could have been further ahead in many areas if I had 
not strayed. 

The first connecting link or building block in my 
return to church was a person of my own age who 
was genuinely interested in me. Young people can 
reach other young people in a way that adults never 
can. 

To teachers I would say: Never "write off" a student. 
The power of the gospel is the most potent, construc- 
tive influence in the world. A student who is off the 
path needs only to recognize the great value system 
the Church offers. Saul of Tarsus and Alma, the 
younger, made 180-degree turns in their lives when 
they received testimonies. My gospel teachers have 
been the most influential forces for good in my life 
in helping me on the right path. 

And parents, please set the proper example! En- 
courage your children to associate with active 
Latter-day Saint friends, so that at critical ages in 
their lives your own influence for good will be forti- 
fied by that of other active young people. 

As a dropout who has returned, I do not consider 
that return to be strange or a great miracle, but 
rather a demonstration of the power of the gospel. 
I am so grateful to God that I have been able to ex- 
perience that strength and to those who have been his 
agents in teaching me by word and example. O 



70 



Improvement Era 



A Woman's Song 
By Marlys Bradley 

The sound of a woman — 
Humming at her work 
Lively melodies that swing 
A broom without a jerk, 
That bubble the remnants 
Of a luncheon date 
From the smooth surface 
Of the best china plate. 
The sound of a woman — 
Singing tuneful, delicate airs, 
Musing in contemplation 
Of daily affairs. 
The sound of a woman — 
Crooning a soft lullaby 
To a fretful child 
To still the whimpering cry. 
The sound of a woman 
In her unfettered song 
Is the sound of happiness 
Pure, unpretentious, and strong. 



The Expert 
By Carol Hatch 

"Always take him with you 

To the opera 

And the zoo; 

Give him cultural learning — 

Go to plays 

And concerts too. 

"Let him scenic wonders see — 
Thundering Niagara, 
The rolling Mississippi, 
Bryce's rosy pinnacles, 
And Washington, D.C." 

So— 

We took him here, 

We took him there, 

Until at end of day, 

As he snuggled into bed, 

"Now, tomorrow may I play?" 



October 1969 



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72 



How to Have Hin 
Making History 



By Glen F. Stillwell 



• No matter how ordinary your life 
has been, the world may one day be 
entertained-and instructed by hearing 
more about it. Certainly family and 
friends will be interested in learning 
about your thoughts, words, and deeds, 
just as you may wish to know what 
life was really like for an individual a 
century ago. 

You may be sure that someday you, 
or your kin, will be searching for in- 
formation about friends and relatives 
of yesterday. What were they like? 
Where did they come from? What were 
their likes and dislikes? These and simi- 
lar questions will flash through your 
mind until you feel that you must know 
the answers, so you'll look in family 
records and glance at old letters, 
pressed flowers, undated announce- 
ments, newspaper clippings, and un- 
identified photos. 

These few mementos are actually 
more than many persons leave behind. 
In this age of speed there seems to be 
little time for the backward glance, 
the making of notes, and, of course, 
family records. It is regrettable, be- 
cause collecting and storing autobio- 
graphical materials is fascinating and 
fun. At least Benjamin Franklin found 
it so. And he didn't have the advan- 
tage of typewriter and tape recorder. 

Think how nice it would have been 
if our great-grandparents had dated 
those clippings and included with them 
a few pages from a day-to-day diary. 
Then we might have known that Great- 
uncle John, who left home to join the 
Union forces at age 14 and who spent 
long months in Andersonville prison 



during the Civil War, resembled us in 
many ways. Or perhaps we might have 
learned that Uncle Jeff was a personal 
friend of Teddy Roosevelt. 

Your next questions might be: Who 
cares about little old me? Stop and 
think. Wouldn't it be of great interest 
to everyone to hear Mr. Average Per- 
son, born in 1839, tell in his own 
words what he did the first day of 
spring 1859? The time he arose that 
morning? The food he ate for break- 
fast? What he did from sunup to sun- 
down? Such an account would surely 
make a place for itself in modern his- 
tory, and think how it would be 
treasured by Mr. Average Person's 
descendants. 

We know a lady who was so fasci- 
nated by her new tape recorder that 
she put it in the recording cycle early 
one morning and kept it going the 
entire day. The resulting "program" 
put the lie to the old saying about one 
picture being worth a thousand words. 
Of course, these were spoken words — 
words of telephone conversations, com- 
ments of callers, even the exclamation 
of pain when she pinched her finger. 
We doubt that she saved this tape, and 
it is too bad, because some day it 
might be the basis for a book. 

We made the start of our own per- 
sonal time capsule years ago, when we 
bought our first tape recorder. We have 
plastic duplicates of some of those first 
paper tapes. More recently we have 
broadened the scope of our recordings 
to include note of important national 
events, family history, discussions, 
achievements, comments, and descrip- 



Glen F. Stillwell, a former trade publications editor who resides at Manhattan 
Beach, California, reports he has enjoyed "making history since I bought 
my first tape recorder in 1953." 



Improvement Era 



tions of places and people known inti- 
mately now or in the past. 

Taping can now be done efficiently 
at extremely low speed, and long-play 
tapes are available. Hence, there is 
little need for excessive editing except 
perhaps to insert current comment. It 
might be well to advise the purchase or 
use of a quality four-track tape re- 
corder in making personal time cap- 
sule tapes, since such instruments 
usually have add-a-track and editing 
facilities, along with other features. It 
should have a low tape speed of 3%- 
inch per second, or lower. Include in 
the "time capsule" a photo and de- 
scription of the machine used in mak- 
ing the tape. 

You might tape for posterity other 
sounds that are unusual as well as 
those that are ordinary — perhaps a 
bird call, the barking of a dog, the 
sound of a motor, kitchen clatter, and 
children's voices. You might also in- 
clude personal reaction to current 
events, clothing worn, entertainment 
enjoyed, topical humor. 

Each tape should be identified. A 
good way to do this is to type the 
entire program in proper sequence on 
the face of a large manila envelope and 
store the completed reel in this. There 
is no need to use a new envelope, since 
an old one might be postmarked and, 
in addition, may have unusual can- 
celled stamps. This, of course, will 
provide an additional interesting item 
for the time capsule. 

The tape and related additional items 
— all dated — can. best be stored in a 
metal document box; for temporary 
storage, a metal fruit cake tin will serve. 
They should not be placed on a closet 
shelf and forgotten. Playing such a 
tape after a period of years will hold 
surprises even for those who made it. 
When a loved one's death was yet fresh 
in our minds, we hesitated to listen 
to her voice, but no more. With per- 
haps greater understanding and insight 
we can now listen to our mother's 
words, knowing that she would have 
liked it that way. 



Don't fail to date all stored material 
at the time of storage, and to announce 
the current date, time, and place on the 
tape. With a modern recorder, this is 
easy to do without erasing the original 
recording. Anyone familiar with the 
instrument will show you how this is 
done even though there are no con- 
trols for the purpose. The recorder's 
erase head is insulated with a slip of 



cardboard when the additional material 
is added to the tape. An easier method 
of revising a tape is to remake it with 
the use of a borrowed recorder. 

The only thing left to do is to get 
started on your own personal time cap- 
sule today. Tomorrow may be too late, 
and your descendants may regret that 
you left to them little in the way of 
accurate family history. O 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



"All your danger is in discord" 



There are these lines from Longfellow to which our hearts turn at 
this time: "All your strength is in your union. / All your danger is 
in discord. / Therefore be at peace henceforward, / And as 
brothers live together." 1 And he might have added— as husbands and 
wives live together, parents, children, as business partners; as neighbors 
and nations live together. "All your strength is in your union. / All 
your danger is in discord." The strength, the joy of life is in harmony at 
home, at work, in the world— and the danger of discord could hardly 
be overemphasized. Discord is among the greatest tools of the devil- 
quarreling, contention, friction in families, husbands, wives, parents, 
children, neighbors, nations quarreling and contending with each 
other, almost as if without awareness that a little friction can go a long 
way — and to cite a current source, "can trigger chain reactions," and 
"shake the whole delicate balance of office or workshop or home [or 
of the whole world], . . . Friction does not have to be screechy . . . 
to be dangerous and evil." 2 Small frictions grow to large ones and lead 
to hostility; and happiness leaves the home, the heart; and the hope 
and joy of life are less. More and more we need to know that families, 
neighbors, men, and nations can destroy each other in quarreling and 
controversy. More and more we need to "turn the heart of the fathers 
to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers. . . ." 3 
A sense of belonging, a secure place in the family circle, is forever 
among life's most priceless possessions. ". . . if ye are not one ye are 
not mine," 4 said our Savior. God grant that husbands, wives, children, 
parents, partners, fellow workers, men of all faiths, indeed that all the 
children of God may turn hearts toward each other — and also that a 
man should not quarrel with himself inside, but keep the command- 
ments and have a quiet conscience. "All your strength is in your 
union. / All your danger is in discord." 

'Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Song of Hiawatha, Part 1. 
2 The Royal Bank of Canada Monthly Letter, Vol: 49, No. 11. 
3 Mal. 4:6. 
4 D&C 38:27. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System August 3, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



October 1969 



73 




Send Them LISTEN 

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"Keep Cool" 

Today when comfort and reassurance 
were sorely needed, I found the article 
"Keep Cool" [August], and tears of grati- 
tude sprang to my eyes. I thought of 
other parents who may be in need of the 
solace I found from these words, but 
who would never see them. Would it be 
possible to have single copies made and 
given to bishops, who in turn could give 
them to "waiting parents"? 

It seems that a "flower child" is a 
"hush hush" problem because of the 
stigma of drug usage, and in the eyes 
of some members of the Church it seems 
that the "judgments are raised," "enough 
wasn't done for that child," "such and 
such was done." Upon analysis one 
realizes, however, that when we face our 
children, we have loved to the best of 
our knowledge, and we recognize that 
we are all limited in our capacity to gain 
knowledge. When you face drug usage 
by your child, you at first stand helpless 
in your lack of knowledge, and you walk 
through your garden of Gethsemane 
alone, only able to ask, "What have I 
done? Did I harm this child?" As 
knowledge is gained of the problems in- 
volved, a balance of self is eventually 
established. As the article says, "Every- 
thing can come to him who waits." Carl 
Sandburg stated, however, "The crying is 
lonely." I wish I could sign my name, 
but since it seems to some that we wait 
in shame, I can only say, 

Another Parent Who Waits 

It was a comfort to know that we were 
not alone ["Keep Cool," August]. We 
too lost confidence in our ability to raise 
children after our eldest child, a girl, 
traveled the same path to hell that the 
article's author had experienced. Now we 
look back: it has been two years, and we 
all have changed. Thank goodness for 
time, for prayers, for good overcom- 
ing evil. Thank goodness for the Church, 
which helped in so many ways. 

Our scars have not healed yet, but we 
hold our heads high, knowing we did 
our best to raise our child with love, close 
to the Church. The standards of our home 
have not changed, because they were and 
are good standards. The question re- 



mains: Why did it happen to us and a 
beautiful, brilliant, talented girl who was 
raised well? The answer must be that 
Satan would have been pleased had he 
succeeded. 

Parents in Kearns, Utah 

May I tell you how very much I appre- 
ciated the article "Keep Cool." This kind 
of advice and help has been needed for 
a long time. 
A Mother in Marysville, Washington 

Thank you from the hearts of thousands 
of parents and grandparents everywhere 
for the understanding and helpful letter 
to anguished parents, "Keep Cool." God 
is patient and loving and forgiving to us, 
and we must return those qualities to our 
younger generation. God bless you for 
printing such an article. 

Grandparents Who Wait 

Tonight when I came home from work 
the Era was waiting for me, and as I 
glanced through it I saw the article 
"Keep Cool." My daughter, who is 15 
years old, ran away from home three 
weeks ago. I know the general area 
where she is, but neither I nor my fam- 
ily nor friends nor the police have been 
able to find her. She is in an area known 
for its hippie-type youth and drugs. 
Your article did something that nothing 
else and no one else have been able to 
do— give me at least a little hope that 
maybe things will eventually turn out all 
right. I will continue to serve my God 
and pray and love, and maybe my daugh- 
ter will come back and yet grow up to 
be a fine daughter to me and to God. 
A Mother in Seattle, Washington 

The Socio-Political Spectrum 

Hooray for the Era! I have been truly 
pleased and surprised at some interesting 
poetry, some controversial-bold letters 
from both sides of the socio-political 
spectrum, the article on student unrest in 
May ["These Times"], which wasn't the 
usual one-sided condemnation, and the 
new article on meat— so long needed to 
be heard. 

Scott S. Smith 

Thousand Oaks, California 

World of Genealogy 

The July issue is perhaps the most out- 
standing issue ever published (in my 
humble opinion). Each article was ex- 
cellent. Undoubtedly it will do a great 
deal of good in the world. I personally 
have sent three copies where I feel sure 
it will pave the way to releasing vast 
stores of personal records that would 
never be found by microfilmers. In one 
case I know that the newspapers and 
town records have been burned, and yet 
my distant relative has duplicates of most 
of them in her home, the result of a long 
lifetime of clipping and searching. The 
Era will do the softening. 

Dora D. Flack 

Bountiful, Utah 

Thank you for one of the best issues of 
the Era [July]. I felt I just had to express 



74 



Improvement Era 



my thanks to you for a very enjoyable 
magazine; every feature was so interest- 
ing and inspiring. I don't believe anyone 
who reads this issue can help but come 
away from it inspired to do his genealogy, 
with a stronger testimony of the truth of 
the gospel, or even a better cook— I tried 
the potato salad out on our Trailbuilders, 
and they loved it. 

I was particularly impressed with the 
feature "Reports of the Faithful." 

Since you published some experiences, 
may I please tell you mine? As children, 
my brother Billy and I were very close. 
It was a very sad day when the Lord 
called him home; he was only 15, but 
there was much work for him to do. How 
much work I learned ten years later. I 
was married and had two little girls then. 
Billy came to me in a very life-like 
dream— he looked beautiful, with no signs 
of the sickness that took him from us. 
He stood there smiling, holding out to me 
a handful of papers; and not moving his 
lips, he told me that our people wanted, 
and had waited long, to have their temple 
work done. 

I knew very little about genealogy. All 
mother could tell me was that Great- 
grandmother Barbara Niemes was born 
in a town called Gruenstadt, Germany. I 
knew no German and didn't have the fog- 
giest idea where Gruenstadt was in 
Germany. 

I wrote to Gruenstadt for the birth 
certificate of my grandmother and was 
thrilled with the reply. Not only did I 
receive the birth certificate, giving me 
the names of her parents, but the re- 
corder also wrote the names of her 
grandparents on the back and, more 
thrilling, said that for $8 he would send 
me her pedigree back to 1600. 

Genealogy became like a drug to me. 
I couldn't leave it alone. After feeding 
breakfast to my family and sending 
Daddy off to work, I found it hard to 
resist writing one quick letter. That 
quick letter many times would find me 
still doing genealogy when Daddy came 
home looking for his dinner and a clean 
house. 

It was during such a period of interest 
that I received a very large envelope 
from Germany giving me information. 
For three nights in a row I was awakened 
from a deep sleep, and sitting up in bed, 
I could feel the room filled with people 
and feel their pleas to send their names to 
Salt Lake City so that they could have 
their temple work done. They won, and 
I filled out the family group sheets as 
best I could. 

I received a letter from the Genealogi- 
cal Society telling me that I didn't put 
the "source" in correctly, and I was a 
little worried until I received a second 
letter asking me in which temple I wished 
the work done. I replied, "The temple 
where the work can be done the quick- 
est, so that we can all receive some 
rest." I then told them my story. There 
have been other experiences, and I know 
that there are many people waiting on 
the other side for someone to do their 
temple work for them. I'm sure many 
people will be inspired in reading the 
July Era. 

Mrs. Edgar Fink 
San Antonio, Texas 



October 1969 



What Can We Read? 

I have just received my June Era con- 
taining the general conference talks. In 
reading one of the talks, I found a re- 
mark by one person that he would not 
have most well-known magazines in his 
house. This reminds me of a question 
put to me by some MIA girls a few years 
ago. I found that they had brought into 
the MIA class I was teaching some maga- 
zines of the "confession" type— trash with 
a "moral" feebly tacked on the end of 
the story to excuse its existence. 

I pointed out to these girls the low qual- 
ity of story content, low quality writing, 
and crude advertisements for indecent 
clothing and pornographic material. The 
girls, some of whom were without Latter- 
day Saint guidance in the home, had 
been deceived by the "morals" of the 
stories and demanded, "What are we sup- 
posed to read, then? It doesn't take us a 
month to read the Era, and anyway, we 
don't want to keep our noses glued to 
church publications all the time." 

What are Latter-day Saints supposed 
to read? There are, of course, classics in 
literature, but most of them are 50 years 
old, and many of the younger members 
would like to read stories with a cur- 
rent theme. I feel that they need current 
stories, too, so that they can more easily 
identify with the hero or heroine. 

Unfortunately, most books and stories 
now printed concern anti-heroes who 
allow obstacles to overcome them and 
who yield to temptation so readily it is 
not considered to be temptation at all, 
but merely "nature." 

By diligent searching it is possible to 
find something fit to read, and I believe 
many good books must be published of 
which I have no knowledge. In view of 
the high quality of the Era of Youth 
contest winners' works, could a magazine 
of Latter-day Saint writers' works be 
published separately for the entertain- 
ment of Latter-day Saints? Latter-day 
Saints ought to enjoy reading, but we 
need something fit to read. 

Margreta Spencer 
General Hospital 
Safad, Israel 



On Lines Not Written 
By Paul Armstrong 

A big idea crossed my mind, 

But then I couldn't seem to find 

A moment free; 

Now I see a page blank, white, 

Where all those lines I didn't 
write 

Escaped from me. 



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76 



Genealogy 



Genealogy: the 
Great Equalizer 



By David H. Pratt 

• Genealogy is a systematic study 
of the personal history of the race 
in order to determine one's ancestry. 
It is dependent upon the existing 
records of the past and a skillful 
analysis of them through insights 
provided by history, geography, 
and allied studies of human con- 
nections and movements. 

Latter-day Saints view genealogy 
as a tool to weld family ties between 
the living and the dead. The family 
is the basis of the Lord's kingdom, 
and entrance into the highest de- 
gree of the celestial kingdom will 
be possible only for those who have 
been sealed into one eternal family. 

We are laboring under the spirit 
of Elijah when we marry in the 
temple, when we hold our family 
home evenings, and when we exer- 
cise the patriarchal priesthood in 
righteousness, but the whole vision 
is not obtained until we recognize 
genealogy as the means of extend- 
ing our family circle even be- 
yond the veil. Then will we begin 
to grasp the full significance of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith's statement, 
"the power of Elijah is sufficient 
to make our calling and election 
sure." 

In addition to the spiritual goal 
of genealogy, perhaps we Latter- 
day Saints need to be reminded 
that genealogy is not just a means 



to an end. Let us not overlook the 
significance and potentiality in 
genealogy for other areas of life. 
Genealogy will assist any student 
of history to gain a more solid 
foundation for his studies. The 
background of entire regions or 
events could be traced through the 
genealogies and the personalities 
involved to project why they 
thought and acted as they did. The 
cultural strains that shaped their 
habits and problems and the roots 
of their institutions could be more 
easily determined. Genealogy is the 
skeleton of history, and its students 
recognize that their quests are 
linked, as one writer has stated, 
"with the movements of human 
history and entwined with the roots 
and branches of human nature." 
(Anthony R. Wagner, English An- 
cestry. ) 

The role of genealogy may have 
even deeper significance in these 
changing times. Modern technology 
and industry have freed man from 
the drudgery of the past and given 
him more time and wealth for edu- 
cational and spiritual pursuits. But 
at the same time, these advances 
have unintentionally weakened the 
family structure and often left man 
rootless as he attempts to cope 
with the problem of how to use 
newfound leisure time. The trivial 



David H. Pratt, instructor in genealogy at Brigham Young University, was 
formerly assistant supervisor of research at the Genealogical Society. He 
serves as high priests group leader in the Pleasant Grove (Utah) Fifth Ward. 



Improvement Era 



recreations with which many per- 
sons fill what is increasingly becom- 
ing the major part of their day only 
add to the unrest, lack of purpose, 
and false goals that plague the 
present. Genealogy could perform 
a dual role in helping man to use 
his free time more intelligently 
while obtaining a better under- 
standing of the past, but more im- 
portantly, by helping "to reconsti- 
tute human links which may restore 
to his life lost dignity and meaning." 
(Ibid,) 

Baron de Montesquieu informs us 
that it is impossible to honor "de- 
ceased parents without being led to 
reverence the living." Genealogy 



truly is a leveler in that it brings 
people closer together in an aware- 
ness of and appreciation for their 
common heritage. Genealogy is no 
respecter of persons, and its pur- 
suit should lead one to be tolerant 
of others as he learns how tangled 
and intermingled all our pedigrees 
are. 

Genealogy is not a subject for 
the dead; rather, it is the unifier of 
men living and dead so that they 
might be sealed by the power of 
Elijah. There is no place in our 
theology for the man who cries that 
he has no time for his family, either 
living or dead. The power is within 
each of us to attain this goal. O 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Now make the most of it! 



Somewhere the story is told of a talented girl who seemed not to be 
doing enough with the gifts and abilities that she had been given, 
and under some strong impulse her mother one day impatiently 
shook her and, in substance, said: "I've given you life. Now you do 
something with it!" We could conceive of the Father of us all saying 
about the same: "I've given you life. Now make the most of it! I've 
given you time, opportunity, talent, intelligence, the good earth and 
all it offers— now use it, do something with it!" This brings to mind a 
line, not often heard or said these days, but much full of meaning: "We 
are not here to play, to dream, to drift." One of the most wasteful 
wastes in the world is the waste of time, of talent, of opportunity, of 
creative effort— indifference to development, indifference to learning, 
indifference to work— the don't-care, drop-out, what's-the-use attitude. 
There are times for preparation, and times for serious, responsible per- 
formance, and we had better be finding direction, finding ourselves, 
and moving forward, avoiding indifferent drifting or wasteful delay in 
using the priceless abilities and opportunities God has given. One of 
the steadying factors in this broad and blessed land, and in each one's 
life— one that would reduce restlessness and discontent— would be for 
all of us to make commitment to develop and use in more useful ways 
the best of our abilities, perhaps with a sense that the Father of us all 
might somehow, sometime shake us, and unforgettably say (which he 
has, in more ways than we seem to be aware): "I have given you life. 
Now, make the most of it!" 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System July 27, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



October 1969 



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78 



The Church 
Moves On 



July 1969 



"America's Witness for Christ," with 
a cast of 500 performing on 25 hand- 
somely designed outdoor sets at the 
Hill Cumorah in upstate New York, be- 
gan its week-long presentation this 
evening. 

August 1969 



The annual Hill Cumorah Pageant 
closed its 1969 season this evening. 
New lighting and a new five-channel 
stereophonic sound system made it pos- 
sible for all to see and hear better than 
ever before. The estimated attendance 
at the six performances approached 
100,000. 



Some 5,000 persons attended a 
convocation of the World Conference 
on Records in the Salt Lake Tabernacle. 
There they heard the Tabernacle Choir 
and organ and addresses by President 
Hugh B. Brown of the First Presi- 
dency and Elders Harold B. Lee and 
Howard B. Hunter of the Council of the 
Twelve. Conference seminars will be- 
gin Tuesday, August 5, and will continue 
through Friday, August 8. 

KM The annual all-Church golf tourna- 
ment opened at Alpine and Wasatch 
Mountain golf courses in central Utah. 
Last evening a banquet was held at 
Brigham Young University. 

til A sudden-death playoff, the first 
such playoff in the all-Church golf 



tournament senior division, was won 
by Robert (Bud) Andreason of Long 
Beach, California. Jeff Ellis won the 
junior division, and Larry Summerhays 
the veterans' division. 

The World Conference on Records 
closed this evening, after a gala ban- 
quet and program at the Salt Palace 
in Salt Lake City. 



All LDS missionaries laboring in 
Ireland are safe during the present 
civil crisis, Irish Mission President 
Theron M. Ashcroft advised the Mission- 
ary Department. Missionaries in the 
Londonderry area have been moved to 
safety. 



U The First Presidency announced 
the appointment of Charles Grob of 
Salt Lake City to be president of the 
Swiss Temple, succeeding Walter Trauf- 
fer. 

The following appointments to mem- 
bership on the general board of the 
Relief Society were announced (resi- 
dence is Salt Lake City unless noted): 
Helen Gygi Lach, Orlene J. Poulsen, 
Johna Mary de St. Jeor, Beverly Jensen 
Pond, Marian Louise Richards Boyer, 
Amy Young Valentine (Provo, Utah), 
Marjorie Merrill Reeve (Kansas City, 
Missouri), Aline Rawson Pettit, Anna 
Jean Bullock Skidmore (Logan, Utah), 
Ada Jones Jones (Chandler, Arizona), 
and Inez Tolman Waldron (Logan, 
Utah). 

The reappointments of George I. 
Cannon and Robert L. Backman to the 
general board of the Young Men's Mu- 
tual Improvement Association were 
announced. 



m 



m Members of the Salt Lake Taber- 
nacle Choir left Salt Lake City this 
morning for Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
This evening some 15,000 attended 
their concert at the Canadian National 
Exposition. 

It was "Play ball!" beginning early 
this morning as the annual all-Church 
softball tournaments got underway at 
George Q. Morris Park in Salt Lake 
City. 



Improvement Era 



President W. Stanford Wagstaff of 
the Gulf States Mission notified the 
Missionary Department that all mission- 
aries were safe and accounted for after 
Hurricane Camille. 

Utah Day was noted at the Canadian 
National Exposition as the Tabernacle 
Choir gave its second concert in 
Toronto. 



BQ 



The Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir 
returned to Salt Lake City this evening 
after presenting a concert in the Chi- 
cago Amphitheater during the conven- 
tion of the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation. Nearly 40,000 persons in all 
heard the concerts in Toronto and 
Chicago. 



Results in the all-Church softball 
tournament were: 

Senior fast pitch: Burbank (Cali- 
fornia) Second, championship; Bounti- 
ful (Utah) 30th, second; Monument 
Park West Fifth (Salt Lake City), third; 
Van Nuys (California), fourth; and Long 
Beach (California) Third, fifth. 

Junior fast pitch: Chula Vista (Cali- 
fornia), championship; Canoga Park 
(California), second; Whittier (Cali- 
fornia) Seventh, third; Hollywood 
(California) Third, fourth; and Taylors- 
ville (Utah) Fifth, fifth. 

Senior slow pitch: Mesa (Arizona) 
22nd, championship; Westchester (Cali- 
fornia) Second, second; North Jordan 
(Utah) Sixth, third; Yucaipa (California), 
fourth; and West Suburban (Illinois), 
fifth. 

Junior slow pitch: Phoenix (Arizona) 
Tenth, championship; Westminster 
(California), second; Twin Falls (Idaho), 
third; Raymond (Alberta, Canada) Third, 
fourth; and Merced (California), fifth. 



The appointment of Melvin R. 
Brooks as director of distribution and 
translation for the European areas of 
the Church was announced. 

The appointment of Addie Fuhriman 
to the Young Women's Mutual Improve- 
ment Association general board was 
announced. 



October 1969 




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80 



TheseTimes 




By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

Commissioner and. Executive Officer, Utah System of Higher Education 

• Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin have set foot on the moon. 
Michael Collins helped get them there and back, piloting Columbia, 
the command module. A President of the United States, Richard M. 
Nixon, talked to Armstrong and Aldrin by telephone shortly after they 
set foot on the satellite, July 20, 1969. Ten days later the President 
was in Romania. 

The two events were not isolated. The trip of the President of the 
United States was undoubtedly planned to follow the moon landing. 
Successful or not, the President's swing- across the Pacific, through 
southeast Asia, and on to Bucharest was well assisted by the success 
of Apollo 11. 

At the turn of the century, Theodore Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy 
on its first cruise around the world. It was a demonstration of national 
power for nationalism's sake. It was the time of nearly a dozen "great" 
or aspiring powers. 

It did not require Apollo 11 to demonstrate American power in 
1969. The technical elegance of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo 
missions has conveyed many lessons, including the demonstration of 
national power. The planting of the Stars and Stripes on the moon's 
surface constitutes national pride that all the world can understand. 
But the message, "We came in peace for all mankind," was also planted. 

Neil Armstrong, correcting the verbal relay and the press reports, 
said that the first words spoken on lunar soil, and by him, were: 
"That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." 

What can be said, viewing the successful mission? What does it 
portend? 

1. Apollo 12 will follow Apollo 11. Space exploration will con- 
tinue, to the moon, Mars, elsewhere. 

2. The explorations may be greatly stimulated by the analyses 
of the 60-odd pounds of lunar material returned by Armstrong, Aldrin, 



Improvement Era 



and Collins. Not a California gold 
rush, perhaps, but curiosities will 
be piqued. Eventually, economic 
consequences will be weighed. 

3. The Russians are undoubted- 
ly, as a national system, seized 
with new concerns for their space 
program. Scientists and engineers 
throughout the world will face new 
frontiers. 

4. There will be much discus- 
sion in Congress, in the public 
media, indeed, throughout the 
world, as to how much American 
resources should be committed 
anew to the space program, and 
how much should be left for, and 
what will be the effects on, domes- 
tic urban needs. There will be 



advice and opinions from all 
quarters. 

The foregoing are among the 
obvious consequences. 

What may be less obvious and 
possibly more important? 

1. I think there will develop 
some fundamental emphases and 
attitudes that will notably affect 
education. Young people have 
been orienting themselves more 
and more to the engineering sci- 
ences since about 1890. For 12 
years, since Sputnik, American 
elementary and secondary educa- 
tion has enlarged its emphasis on 
science, mathematics, and engi- 
neering subjects. 

In the universities and colleges 



of America, since 1946, the former 
liberal arts, so-called, have virtu- 
ally all become specialistic disci- 
plines. Formerly, most universities 
limited strictly the amount of work 
taken in a major subject. Today, 
the English, philosophy, sociology, 
and political science major stu- 
dent, no less than the science, 
business, or engineering student, 
tends to spend the bulk of his 
university time in one department 
— or in closely allied work. In 
many universities, a student in 
business administration or engi- 
neering may frequently have more 
breadth in his educational work 
(so far as numbers and varieties 
of subjects are concerned) than 




Readers of Dr. G. Homer Durham's highly interest- 
ing, informative, and provocative column will be inter- 
ested to know of his recent appointment as Utah's first 
Commissioner of Higher Education. The new post 
requires the relocation of Dr. and Mrs. Durham to 



Salt Lake City from Tempe, Arizona, where Dr. Durham 
has served since 1960 as president of Arizona State 
University. While there, he guided a university that grew 
from 10,640 to 26,264 students and increased substan- 
tially in new buildings, and he directed the development 
of a sophisticated and respected academic program. 
Previous to the Arizona State presidency, Dr. Durham 
served as academic vice-president at the University of 
Utah, where he also headed the political science de- 
partment. In 1959, he was elected president of the 
American Society of Public Administration, an organiza- 
tion he helped found. Since then, he has held many 
important national and international governmental and 
educational assignments, which have frequently taken 
him to other lands. A native Utahn (born in Parowan), 
Brother Durham has his roots deeply imbedded in the 
Church and has authored and edited a handful of 
Church books, including some of the writings of his 
father-in-law, the late Elder John A. Widtsoe of the 
Council of the Twelve. (He married Eudora Widtsoe, 
and they have two daughters and a son.) Era readers 
have long enjoyed Dr. Durham's comments in "These 
Times," a regular department since August 1946. 
However, he was a consistent contributor of articles 
and book reviews beginning in July 1937, at which 
time he was pursuing his doctorate at the University 
of California at Los Angeles. 



October 1969 



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82 



some philosophy or language 
majors. 

The net result portends, I be- 
lieve, that eventually the so-called 
humanities and social science 
majors will fall behind in various 
areas and enterprises of human 
competition in the future. Some, 
in many cases, will have an educa- 
tion largely based on the cultivation 
and recultivation of texts, words, 
and criticism, rather than a knowl- 
edge of things, forces, and pro- 
cesses. Society will always need 
the refiners of texts, of ideas 
broadly considered, and of words. 
The individuals, whether theolo- 
gians, professors, managers, or 
politicians, who lead other men 
and direct them by the powers of 
words, ideas, concepts, and lan- 
guage are a vital component of 
civilized life. But if the Frank 
Bormans and Neil Armstrongs of 
the future arise, men who have 
mastered technical skills and, at 
the same time, have developed 
mastery of words, ideas, and con- 
cepts, they will have an advantage 
over the former. 

There may be a slow trend in 
that direction already, aided and 
abetted by the technology under- 
lying computers and mass media. 

How does this come about? 
Formerly, the humanist-speakers, 
writers, orators, combining their 
skills, competed with the warrior- 
leaders for social dominance, for 
exerting the influence that leads 
to organization skills. In many 
instances the warrior-leaders, de- 
spite greater strength, skill, and 
the power of example, eventually 
came under the dominance of 
thinker-organizers who had verbal 
skills. The engineers who rose to 
lead nations, corporations, church- 
es, and other large human or- 
ganizations were few in the 
nineteenth century. In the past 
two decades, more and more have 
emerged. 



A pattern is beginning to be 
noticeable in the universities. 
Men study science or engineering, 
then do graduate work in business 
administration, law, or occasional- 
ly a social science. They filled 
their group requirements just as 
the English and history major did, 
but the latter didn't acquire a mas- 
tery of science; didn't take the lab 
courses and the mathematics; 
didn't learn computer program- 
ming. It is true that the engineer- 
ing or business administration 
major didn't take political theory, 
comparative literature, the course 
in the modern novel, or the "His- 
tory and Culture of the Far East." 
But throughout his life, on color 
television, in a flood of printed 
matter from newspapers, periodi- 
cals, and paperbacks, the engineer 
— if he has the desire and uses the 
"fifteen minutes a day" that used 
to be advertised for the Harvard 
Classics — can and will see modern 
Chaucerian tales nightly on tele- 
vision; he can read (as the social 
science and humanities student 
learns to read) nontechnical litera- 
ture on everything from social 
mere's to cultural conflict. He 
will never be as precisely informed 
in the social sciences and humani- 
ties as professors and majors of 
these subjects. But he will be 
better informed in their subjects 
than they are in his. Therein may 
lie the clue to a rather funda- 
mental shift in education, both in 
what parents encourage their 
children to study and in what 
they request their school boards 
and legislatures to provide. 

The classics, largely in Greek 
and Latin, constituted the curricu- 
lum for an educated man or 
woman only a century ago. Chem- 
istry and physics were held at 
arm's length at Harvard and Yale 
— in the so-called "Sheffield 
Scientific Schools." What a revolu- 
tion has occurred in American 



Improvement Era 



higher education! Both in cur- 
ricula and, of course, in the shift 
from education for a small elite, 
to higher education for the masses 
in all varieties of talents, in such 
unheard of fields as accounting, 
agriculture, home economics, jour- 
nalism, physical education, teach- 
er education, counseling, social 
work, and business administration! 
One cannot find those in a college 
catalogue in 1869 — at least in 
what was considered a "respect- 
able" college. 

It is quite likely that in the next 
several decades, there will be even 
greater encouragement of special- 
ties, of specific interests; that 
these will come in the early col- 
lege years, rather than insisting on 
"filling all the groups" first. Sec- 
ondary education is now "filling 
the groups." The university de- 
partments, including those in the 
former liberal arts and sciences, 
are rapidly becoming quasi-pro- 
fessional schools. General, liberal 
education is being diffused through 
the mass media as well as by the 
university specialists in those 
fields. Language, of course, will 
continue to be fundamental. But 
the extension of language power 
through computer print-outs, elec- 
tric circuitry, loudspeakers, tele- 
vision, and mass media may 
provide some interesting chal- 
lenges to schoolteachers who be- 
lieve in the primacy of the printed 
word. 

A case or two in point: Who is 
the Senator from California, Mr. 
George Murphy, and how did he 
get there? What was the influence 
of mass media and film on the 
career of Governor Ronald Reagan 
and thereby of the state of Cali- 
fornia? Who are better known in 
America today than Walter Cron- 
kite, Frank Reynolds, Huntley and 
Brinkley? Of course, some good 
English or journalism or political 
science majors help produce the 



words they speak to waiting mil- 
lions, wreathed in living color. But 
who explains the pictures from 
Mars from the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory in Pasadena? And who 
will write Walter Cronkite's copy 
and replace him in 1989? 

2. This brings us to the sec- 
ond, and more obvious, outgrowth 
of the moon mission: centraliza- 
tion. The world has been centraliz- 
ing its institutions, slowly at 
first, since about 1500 A.D. It 
will now proceed much more 
rapidly. The World Conference on 
Records held by the Church in 
Salt Lake City in August symbol- 
ized what could happen if knowl- 
edge, technology (such as control 
of earth-circling satellites), and 
leadership could all be concen- 
trated at one spot. It would make 
logical economics for space enter- 
prise in the twenty-first century to 
be based on international as well as 
national systems. It would make 
logical sociology for men to strive 
to solve their problems and con- 
flicts, among nations, by law and 
peaceful means. But who and what 
and how will decency, kindness, 
gentility, civility, and love be nur- 
tured among mankind? By ma- 
terialists? How will we kindle and 
encourage the greater spiritual 
values? Who was it that said man 
does not live by bread alone? 

One small step for a man on the 
moon. How do we make small 
steps for men to live together on 
the earth? 

The moon accomplishment in- 
spires. It provided an atmosphere 
in which the President of the 
United States could go abroad in 
July and August, could speak and 
be heard as a man among men of 
different nations — and probably 
be listened to with greater interest. 
It is well that this was done and 
done as well as it was done. 

Dr. Billy Graham, however, has 
been credited with pointing out 



October 1969 



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something that bears repetition in 
such circumstances in such times 
as these. 

In the burst of enthusiasm mark- 
ing the astronauts' safe return and 
their landing on the Hornet, Mr. 
Nixon termed their achievement 
the greatest event since the Crea- 
tion. Such enthusiasm, delivered 
without a script or TelePrompter, 
is understandable. But Dr. Graham 
suggested there were at least three 
events since the Creation of great- 
er importance: the first Christmas, 
the event of the first Good Friday, 
and the first Easter. 

All Christians cannot help but 
agree. The incarnation, the hu- 
man death and resurrection, 
reuniting the mortal body with the 
immortal spirit, conveys meaning, 
if true, far beyond a 240,000-mile 
trip to the moon and back. Such 
faith gives meaning to the great 
journey. For non-Christians, it can 
be suggested that such faith en- 
nobles the concept of man, enno- 
bles it beyond anything suggested 
in the brilliant achievements of 
NASA. Faith and belief in man's 
godlike origins, his godlike mis- 
sion and aspirations will support 
and sustain tolerance in the midst 
of centralization, pluralism, and 
freedom in education, and en- 
courage life's pursuits in an ex- 
panding universe. The astronauts' 
message, "We came in peace for 
all mankind," was, after all, a 
literary echo of an earlier message 
from outer space to earth, heard 
in the Judean hills. It still is 
struggling to be heard: "Peace on 
earth; good will toward men." 

The true meaning of those words 
is worth thinking about in these 
times: "Peace on earth; good will 
toward men." Without belief in 
God, what man will take even a 
small step, save in his own self- 
interest, whether narrowly or 
broadly conceived? This is some- 
thing to think about every time 
we view the moon from now on. Q 



84 



Improvement Era 



A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price 

Part 8 (Continued) 



Km 







Facsimile No.l, by the Figures 



• Mr. Jones: They wouldn't be good 
Egyptians if they didn't break the 
rule sometimes, but the rule is there, 
all right. In the Joseph Smith Papy- 
rus No. 1, ten doors are clearly drawn. 
So everything is in order. But are 
these the pillars of heaven? Dr. Mer- 
cer scoffed at the idea when he wrote, 
"Figure 11 represents rather the pillars 
of earth than 'the pillars of heaven.' " 2G; ' 
But where, I ask you, do the Egyptians 
speak of "the pillars of earth"? 

Dick: Didn't they have the djed- 
pillars? 

Mr. Jones: If any Egyptian pillars 
could qualify as pillars of. earth, the 
four-in-one djed-pillar, as the symbol 
of enduring solidity, would be it — it has 
its place in the Osiris cult and the 
underworld, yet that would seem to be 
secondary, for Professor Bonnet is 
emphatic in his conclusion that the 
original and only function of the 
compound djed symbol is to denote 
the pillars of heaven. 260 Very recently 
W. Kornfeld has reexamined the djed- 
pillar and found it to be the prehis- 
toric symbol of durability both of the 
temple itself and of the dynasty that 
erected it; as such it always has a 
cosmic, astral significance, and is to be 
identified with the pylons of the tem- 
ple facade. 2GGa Busiris is the city of the 
(i/ed-pillars, which play a prominent 
role both in the coronation of the king 
and in the raising of Osiris from the 
dead; the "raising of the Djed-symbol" 
represents the establishing of the 
world-order, since the multiple-pillar 
symbol itself stands for the cosmic 
supports that extend from earth to 
heaven. 2G6b Since Mercer's day the 
palace-facade and serekh design have 
come to be understood in a new 
light: it represents the gate by which 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

the big Horus-hawk passes between 
earth and heaven, 207 by which the 
spirits pass between worlds above 
and below: "This communication," 
wrote Lacau, "was one of the great 
preoccupations of the Egyptian. The 
stele was the instrument of this com- 
munication." 2GS In the first chapter of 
the Book of the Dead we stand before 
the gate of the underworld, 269 but who 
is the figure in the tomb of Seti I 
between the uplifted arms of whose 
Ka- crown are five of our gates? It is 
Shu, the god of the upper regions, and 
what he holds are the pylons of the 
heavens. 270 Their nature is clearly and 
unmistakably indicated on two por- 
table shrines, depicted on the walls of 
the great temple of Anion at Karnak. 
One shows Rameses III as four men 
standing in a row supporting the sym- 
bol for heaven (pt) with upraised arms. 
The arrangement and attitude of the 
four portraits, in which the Pharaoh 
appears once as a priest and three 
times as king, show that he is meant 
to represent the four Sons of Horus 
supporting the sky; the figures all 
stand on a palace-facade design with 
the familiar row of pylons. 

Jane: How many gates are there? 

Mr. Jones: Just as many as the artist 
has room for. When he reaches the 
end of his space he does not hesitate 
to cut one of the gates neatly in two, 
making 16 J / 2 in all. 271 In the other 
picture a later Pharaoh appears as three 
kings — the priest is missing this time — 
supporting the heaven-symbol in the 
identical manner of Rameses, only this 
time the pi-sign is adorned with stars 
and the king himself is a heavenly 
being, "beloved of Amon-Re," as the 
inscription says, "endowed with life 
like Re." The three kings here stand 



on a row of nine pylons. 272 In our 
24-niche archaic tombs, incidentally, 
there were always nine niches on a 
side with three at either end, so this 
probably harks back to the ancient 
form, and there cannot be the slightest 
doubt that the row of gates is supposed 
to be supporting the heavens. In many 
gate-and-pillar designs the top rim is 
decorated with stars, showing that the 
pillars are supporting the heavens. 2 " 

Dick: You say that the Egyptians 
don't talk about the pillars of earth, as 
far as you know. Do they ever talk 
about the pillars of heaven? 

Mr. Jones: Indeed they do, and they 
leave us in no doubt as to what they 
refer to. An inscription in the temple 
of Amenophis III at Luxor tells how 
the temple's "pylons reach to heaven, 
joining themselves with the stars." 
This is "a* stereotyped expression," 271 
and here is another: "Its pylons reach 
to heaven like the four pillars of heav- 
en. . . ." Also the tall cedar flagpoles 
that flanked the pylons were said to 
reach the stars. 275 Such expressions 
make it perfectly clear that the temple 
pylons, going back to the old palace 
facade, were, in the words of the Book 
of Abraham, "designed to represent the 
pillars of heaven, as understood by the 
Egyptians." Another feature of the 
palace facade was the "window of 
apparition." 

Jane: What was that? 

Mr. Jones: A ceremonial window - 
and-balcony arrangement to provide a 
theatrical appearance for the Pharaoh 
and the royal family. The window was 
a sort of elevated stage above the great 
gate; there the king would appear to 
his worshipful subjects in the court 
below, to cast down golden gifts among 
them in the manner of the beneficent 



October 1969 



85 




® 



Concerning Facsimile 1, Figure 12, "Rau- 
keeyang, signifying expanse, or the firma- 
ment over our heads; but in this case, in 
relation to this subject, the Egyptians meant 
it to signify Shaumau, to be high, or the 
heavens, answering to the Hebrew word 
Shaumahyeem." While "Shaumahyeem" is 
given as a Hebrew word, no indication is 
given of the origin of "Raukeeyang" and 
"Shaumau" — neither is put forth as Egyp- 
tian, and it needs no demonstration to 
show that both of them, written with 
meticulous care to indicate pronunciation, 
are meant to be Hebrew. 

(A) Here the zigzag lines represent the ex- 
panse of the heavens. The inscription above 
the head of the deity with upraised arms 
tells us that it is Nu, supporting the Sun- 
bark as it passes over the heavenly sea. In 
Nu the primordial waters and "the firma- 
ment over our heads" were always identified 
by the Egyptians. In the careful and ac- 
curate drawing of the zigzag series, guide- 
lines were obviously used, but not drawn 
in as they are in the small and hasty sketch 
of Facsimile 1. 

(B) Here a series of five bands of zigzag 
lines is plainly meant to indicate the waters 
of life. Exactly such a series is represented 
in Figure 12. 

(C) When the artist does not pay sufficient 
attention to the guidelines, the zigzags get 
out of line, as can be seen from the right 
end of this panel. Note also the line of 
doors or pylons below as in Facsimile 1, 
Figure 11, and the indication of human 
sacrifice in the beheaded figures. 

(D) Here we see a crocodile surrounded by 
zigzags, exactly as in .Figure 12. This carv- 
ing, from the Middle Kingdom, demonstrates 
both the antiquity of the motif and the dif- 
ficulty that artists had with keeping their 
zigzags neat and regular without the aid 
of guidelines. That is why the scribe of 
Facsimile 1, Figure 12, not interested in 
producing a work of art, did not hesitate 
to draw in the horizontal lines to enable 
him to finish the zigzags in a hurry. 

There is no doubt whatever that Figure 12 
represents water and that the Egyptians 
always thought of the "expanse, or the 
firmament over our heads," or the high 
heavens to be a vast sea of water. The 
Egyptians thought of two such primordial 
seas, one above and one below the earth, 
meeting at the horizon. The concept is per- 
haps reflected in the word Shaumahyeem, 
which is a dual. 



that is, at the gate of the temple [was] 
. . . conceived as the entrance of the 
Sun-king into his 'Heaven,' i.e. the 
temple," as W. Spiegelberg puts it. 2 " 
Egyptian temples were so orientated 
that the sun actually rose directly be- 
tween the pillars of the main pylon on 
a certain day, so that the pylons "are 
not a purely abstract free theological 
speculation," but a physical arrange- 



have seen Egyptian inspiration in the 
two lotus-crowned pillars, Boaz and 
Jakin, that flanked the main entrance 
to Solomon's temple; 2S1 the latest study 
of these concludes that "the sun must 
have risen between the columns at the 
Equinoxes," and that they "were sym- 
bols of the cosmic pillars," being de- 
rived from the temple-pillows and 
obelisks of the Heliopolis. 2Sla And here 



as crowned with a line of what look 
like the classic double-axe symbols — 
the well-known thunder-axe found 
throughout the ancient world. 283 It has 
been suggested that they originated as 
two lotuses bound together to recall 
the uniting of a prehistoric kingdom in 
the Delta, but they were early con- 
fused with the well-known thunder 
emblem. 2513 Also, the pylons are often 



86 



Improvement Era 





I,. >• ■ 



.: ,- ' ! i '.J J tl I ' 



*. *. fir -*i >»/ n M? 





IHMHflffa&f? 



covered with zigzag designs which 
sometimes represent woven screens but 
are sometimes quite obviously water 
symbols, showing the life-giving waters 
descending from heaven. 2S4 We 
mustn't get too involved with this sort 
of symbolism — it would take us all 
over the world. But it is in order, I 
think, to point out that the line of 
pillars that we always associate with 
Greek temples were called the kiona 
ourania, "the pillars of heaven." 28 "' 
But I think we have said enough to 
make it clear that it is quite correct 
and proper to refer to the line of pylons 
in Papyrus No. 1 as "representing the 
pillars of heaven." 

Jane: But if they are the pillars of 
heaven, then all those zigzaggy lines 
above them must be heaven! 



Dick: It looks more like water, if 
you ask me. 

Mr. Jones: And water is exactly what 
it is supposed to be. Any doubt about 
that is removed by a fragment from 
an XI Dynasty tomb which shows 
just such a crocodile as this one against 
just such a zigzag background as that 
shown here. 2SG These horizontal rows 
of hatchings in alternating directions 
are a common Egyptian way of show- 
ing big waters. On the Cenotaph of 
Seti I they are used to depict the waters 
of the cosmic ocean. 2S7 But the most 
instructive parallels to our papyrus, I 
think, are found in the tomb of Rame- 
ses IX. Here in one scene we find above 
just such a series of pylons as our "pil- 
lars of heaven" just such another series 
of five long horizontal bands of 



hatched lines, the strokes moving in 
contrary directions to give a zigzag 
effect, and upon this mass of zigzags 
the heavenly bark is sailing. It is very 
neatly done, for this was being put on 
the wall of a great king's funeral cham- 
ber, the horizontal bands are perfectly 
straight, and the hatching-strokes per- 
fectly even and regular — it was all 
done with rulers, though the guidelines 
today are invisible. 2SS In a subsequent 
scene, however, the artist tried to do 
the job freehand, and though he was 
very skillful, he got tired before he 
finished and his horizontal zigzag 
strips got all out of line. 289 Now the 
artist of Papyrus No. 1 was not making 
a carefully supervised adornment for 
an everlasting royal memorial but 
merely dashing off a small free-hand 



October 1969 



87 



sketch, so to get his five lines of hatch- 
ing straight he does not hesitate to 
draw in guide lines. The neat way 
would have been to use a ruler, but 
that would also have been the hard 
way, and there can be no doubt that 
the same waters are being represented 
in the papyrus as in the tomb. 
]ane: What waters? 

"There is nothing to 
exclude any of the 
interpretations given 
by Joseph Smith..." 



Mr. Jones: Ah, that is just the point. 
Notice the ship that is sailing on 
the waters in the tomb-drawings; it 
is the heavenly solar bark, and the 
deity who kneels before the huge sun- 
disk in the center of the ship is Shu 
himself, the god not of the lower but of 
the upper spaces. These' are the waters 
of Nw, the primordial heavens. You 
may recall that it was from these heav- 
enly waters that the crocodile emerged 
in the manner of the sun-god Re. And 
these were, of course, matched by the 
waters of the underworld. 

Dick: Why "of course"? 

Mr. ]ones: Because the sun spends 
half his time in the heavens above and 
half in the heavens below — he must 
negotiate both by ship. 2S9a Every- 
body knows that water comes out of 
the ground from below and out of the 
heavens from above. The Egyptians 
devised some very sophisticated ways 
of describing these heavenly pheno- 
mena, of which Professor Anthes 
wrote, "If any simple Egyptian wanted 
to view these images as actual pictures 
of the heavens, he would necessarily 
become totally confused." 290 We can 
avoid confusion by sticking to one 
well-known and firmly established 
idea, namely, that the Egyptians 
started out with the common sense 
conception of heaven as "a flood, 
spreading its expanse of blue waters 
above the earth," the lady Nut and the 
Hathor cow, though quite "primitive," 
being "nothing else but personifica- 
tions" of this "great Flood." 201 This 
remained the basic Egyptian theory of 
the firmament forever after — it was a 
vast expanse of waters, the very waters 
depicted in the tomb-drawings and in 
our identical design in the Joseph 
Smith papyrus. "The expanse or firma- 
ment over our heads" is exactly what 



these hatched horizontal strips were 
meant by the Egyptians to signify. The 
explanation adds a special, secondary 
meaning to the design, and explains 
that this is not the ordinary one: 
". . . but in this case, in relation to 
this subject, the Egyptians meant it to 
signify Shaumau, to be high. . . ." 
That is, they wanted to emphasize in 
the special context one particular 
aspect of the heavens — their height 
and aloofness. 

Dick: Would the Egyptians do that 
— just pick out certain things like that 
from all the rest? 

Mr. Jones: They were up to that sort 
of thing all the time. , Here is a votive 
statuary offering of Rameses II depict- 
ing a typically Egyptian combination 
of a solar disk, a child, a reed, and a 
falcon. Do you get the message? 

Dick: You mean that each figure 
symbolizes something? 

Mr. Jones: It goes farther than that 
— the composition actually spells out a 
name. A smart Egyptian would realize 
that the sun-disk was Ra-, the child 
-mes- (an Egyptian word for child), 
and the reed -ses. 

Dick: Spelling Rameses, of course; 
but what's the hawk doing? 

Mr. Jones: He signifies, according to 
Stadelmann, "that Rameses places 
himself under the protection of the 
Near Eastern god Horon," just as the 
kings of the 4th Dynasty (whose style 
is being imitated here) used to place 
themselves under Horus. 292 So here we 
are back in Canaan again, with the 
Egyptians playing charades. There is 
nothing at all to exclude any of the 
interpretations given by Joseph Smith 
to the various figures in Papyrus I, and 
a great deal to substantiate them. I'm 
not claiming for a minute that any of 
this is proven, but I am claiming that 
the experts who condemned the Prophet 
without a hearing were not playing a 
very honest game. 

Jane: But why would anybody bring 
the pillars of heaven and the expanse 
of heaven into this particular Abraham 
episode? 

Mr. Jones: Because what we have 
here is not merely the telling of a 
story, but the placing of that story in 
its proper context of timeless signifi- 
cance. What happens to Abraham and 
what he does is of enduring effect in 
the history of the whole human race, 
past, present, and future. He is one of 
those key figures in whom all the 
events of the past are brought into 
focus as by a burning-glass, and whose 
actions are in turn projected into the 
future as an ever-expanding image. 
What we see here is a moment of 
immeasurable significance in the his- 
tory of the race: the messenger-bird is 
there to represent the Ruler of All; the 



crocodile is no less necessary to repre- 
sent the ancient opposition in all 
things; the lion is (in early Jewish 
and Christian parlance) the relentless 
force that consumes all material 
things; the lotus is the symbol of the 
righteous man's pilgrimage through a 
hostile and dangerous world — every- 
thing has a meaning, and the pillars 
and expanse of heaven remove the 
whole story from this transient world 
to its proper relationship to the eternal 
plan of things. That's one way of 
looking at it. 

FOOTNOTES 

^S. Mercer, in Utah Survey, Vol. 1, p. 18. 

""H. Bonnet, Reallexikon, pp. 150, 153. 

aooaW. Kornfeld, in Zt. f. A. T. Wiss., Vol. 74, 
pp. 56f. 

» 7 J- Bennett, in Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol. 53, p. 
166. 

m F. Lacau, in Rev. d'Egyptol., Vol. 19 
(1960), pp. 42f. 

SW A. Piankoff, Shrines of Tutankhamon, pp. 
93f . 

^Above, n. 248. 

^Rameses Ill's Temple, Pt. Ill (Univ. of 
Chicago, Or. Inst. Publ, Vol. 74. 

™Ibid. 

373 Thus E. Naville, Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 
Pt. I, and Pt. V, PI. cxxxviii, cxlviii, cxlix, el, 
etc.; W. Borchardt. Das Grabmal des Koenings 
Sahure, (Leipzig, 1913), Bd. II, PI. 45; J. E. 
Quibell, Excavations at Saqqarah, Vol. 1 
(1926), PI. 57. 

^W. Spiegelberg, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 20 
(1898), p. 45, n. xix (text p. 41, line 11). 

z^Ibid., p. 46 (p. 42, line 22); T. Dombart, 
in Egyptian Religion, Vol. 1 (1933), p. 98. 
The poles as well as the pylons represented the 
supports of heaven, see H. Nibley, in Western 
Political Quarterly, Vol. 19 (1966), p. 604, 
for references. 

2T6 The most dramatic representation is the 
famous scene from the tomb of Eye, R. Lepsius. 
Denkmaler, III, 103-9. 

277 The design is discussed by U. Hoelscher, 
in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 67 (1931), pp. 43-51. 

2'»W. Spiegelberg, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 53 
(1917), p. 101. 

™Ibid., pp. 99-101. 

280 F. Jeremiiis, in Chantipie, Lehrbuch der 
Religionsgeschichte (1927), I, 618. 

-^G, Jequier, Considerations sur les Religions 
Egyptiennes, p. 92, cf. pp. 88f, relating the 
pylons to the Bull of Heaven. 

281a Kornfeld, op. cit., pp. 50-53. Cf. Count 
De M. du Buisson, in Rev. Hist. Religs., Vol. 
169, pp. 44f, who discusses the pillars of 
heaven in the Near East in general, associating 
them especially with the heavenly lion, pp. 
45-48. 

***Y, Aharoni, in Archaeology, Vol. 18 
(1965), p. 18. 

^Illustrations may be found in note 273 
above. The lotus origin of the design is appar- 
ent in W. B. Emery, Archaic Egypt, p. 178, 
Fig. 100, and p. 181, Fig. 103. 

:i8i Most strikingly illustrated in The Tomb of 
Pepi II, PI. xxii, xxvii, 15, 17, 19ff, in G. Je- 
quier, Fouilles a Saqqarah (Serv. Antiq., 1936), 
and 1933, p. 13. When the zigzags are drawn 
horizontally down the whole length of a pillar, 
the meaning is unmistakable, H. Bonnet, in 
Bilderatlas zur Religionsgeschichte (Leipzig, 
1924), No. 137. With the 15 pylons in the 
Tomb of Puymere, Vol. 2, PI. Ix, goes the in- 
scription: "Thy mother bestows the waters of 
heaven in her capacity of ssht of heaven." Cf. 
Coffin Texts (De Buck), I, 263-64. 

285J. Trumpf, in Hermes, Vol. 86 (1958). 
pp. 131f. 

2; *>Ed. Naville, The Xlth Dyn. Temple at Deir 
el-Bahari (Eg. Expl. Fund., 1907), Part I, PI. 
xvi, D. 

2S "H. Frankfort, The Cenotaph of Seti I at 
Abydos (Eg. Expl. Soc, 1933), Vol. 2, PI. 
xlix. 

2S *R. Guilmont, in Mem. Inst. Fr. Arch. Or., 
Vol. 15 (1907), PI. 63, 65-67, 71-75. 

^Hbid., PI. lxxv. 

^"See above, Note 149. 

2MR. Anthes, in Mitt. rf. Dt. Or. Ges., 96: 
11-12. 

a^H. Bonnet, Reallexikon, pp. 302f. 

2!> -R. Stadelmann, Syrisch-Palcstincnsische 
Gottheiten, p. 87. 



88 



Improvement Era 



Setting the Stage - 
The World of Abraham 



Part 9: 



Hard Times Come Again: One of the 
main objections of the higher critics 
to the patriarchal stories as history was 
that they were altogether too idyllic in 
their peaceful pastoral setting, which 
belonged to the bucolic poets rather 
than to the stern realities of life. But 
as Professor Albright now reminds us, 
the calm pastoral life of the Patriarchs 
has turned out to be a myth. 1 And the 
myth was invented by the scholars, for 
neither the Bible nor the Apocrypha 
gives it the least countenance: the 
world of Abraham that they describe 
was little short of an earthly hell. 
Furthermore, the peculiar nature of 
those terrible times as described in the 
written sources is in such close agree- 
ment with what is turning up in the 
excavations that it becomes possible to 
assign to Abraham a very real role and, 
possibly within a short time, a definite 
date, in history. 

In reconstructing the world of Abra- 
ham, it is customary procedure first to 
determine upon an approximate date 
for the hero and then to look for things 
in the history of that period which fit 
into his career. But since the world of 
Abraham has already been described 
for us in the traditional sources, we 
are going to reverse the process and 
withhold any attempt at dating until 
we have the clearest possible picture 
of what was going on: then, given 
enough details and particulars, the 
dating should pretty well take care of 
itself. What justifies such a course is 
the remarkable clarity and consistency 
of the accounts of the Bible and the 
ancient commentators when they de- 
scribe the physical world of Abraham, 
the state of society, Abraham's reactions 



to the challenges that met him, and 
the wonderful body of covenants and 
ordinances that he handed on to us. 
Let us consider each of these briefly 
in order. 

Each of the great dispensations of 
the gospel has come in a time of world 
upheaval, when the waywardness of 
the human race has been matched by 
a climactic restlessness of the elements. 
When Adam was cast out of the 
Garden of Eden, he found himself, we 
are told, in "a sultry land of darkness" 
where he was lost and confused,'- 
where temporary survival was a matter 
of toil and sweat amidst the all-con- 
quering dust — "for dust thou art, and 
unto dust shalt thou return." (See Gen. 
3:17-19.) Worse still, Satan was on 
hand to add to his burdens, deride his 
efforts, and make fearful inroads into 
the integrity of his progeny. Who but 
our first parents could have sustained 
the appalling "birthshock" of sudden 
precipitation from one world to an- 
other, from the presence of God to 
thorns, thistles and dust? 3 

If we fancy Noah riding the sunny 
seas high, dry, and snug in the ark, we 
have not read the record. The long, 
hopeless struggle against entrenched 
mass resistance to his preaching, the 
deepening gloom and desperation of 
the years leading up to the final de- 
bacle, then the unleashed forces of 
nature — the family absolutely terrified, 
weeping and praying "because they 
were at the gates of death," as the ark 
was thrown about with the greatest 
violence by terrible winds and titanic 
seas. 1 Albright's suggestions that the 
Flood story goes back to "the tre- 
mendous floods which must have ac- 



companied successive retreats of the 
glaciers . . ." 5 is supported by the tradi- 
tion that the family suffered terribly 
because of the cold, and that Noah on 
the waters "coughed blood on account 
of the cold." 6 The Jaredites had only 
to pass through the tail end of the vast 
storm cycle of Noah's day, yet for 344 
days they had to cope with "mountain 
waves" and winds that "did never 
cease to blow." Finally Noah went 
forth into a world of utter desolation, 
as Adam did, to build his altar, call 
upon God, and try to make a go of it 
all over again, only to see some of his 
progeny in short order prefer Satan to 
God and lose all the rewards that his 
toil and sufferings had put in their 
reach. 

All of Moses' life was toil and dan- 
ger, the real, intimate, ever-present 
danger such as only the Near East can 
sustain at a high level for indefinite 
periods of time. No one would ask to 
go through what Lehi did, or Jared and 
his brother, or Joseph Smith in his 
dispensation. And the one who suf- 
fered most of all was the Lord himself, 
"despised, rejected, a man of sorrows 
and acquainted with grief." In short, 
the leaders of the great dispensations 
have truly earned their calling and 
their glory, paying a price that the rest 
of the human race could not pay even 
if they would. Preeminent among 
these was Abraham, whose life, as the 
Rabbis remind us, was an unbroken 
series of supremely difficult tests. 7 
As in some frightful nightmare, the 
narrator ticks off the principal episodes: 
"But Sarah was barren; she had no 
child (Gen. 11:30). ... Get thee out 
of thy country, and from thy kindred, 
and from thy father's house (12:1). . . . 
going on still toward the south. And 
there was a famine in the land (12:9- 
10) .... the Egyptians beheld the 
woman . . . and the woman was taken 
into Pharaoh's house (12:14-15). . . . 
And Pharaoh . . . said, What is this 
that thou has done unto me? . . . and 
they sent him away (12:18, 20). . . . 
And the land was not able to bear them 
. . . and there was a strife (13:6-7). .'. . 
[The kings came and made war.] And 
they took Lot . . . and his goods (14:1- 
2). ... I go childless, and the steward 
of my house is this Eliezer of Damas- 
cus (15:2). . . . lo, an horror of great 
darkness fell upon him (15:12). . . . 
My wrong be upon thee: I have given 
my maid into thy bosom; and ... I 
was despised in her eyes: the Lord 
judge between me and thee (16:5). . . . 
Wilt thou also destroy the righteous 
with the wicked? . . . Oh let not the 
Lord be angry (18:23, 30). . . . lo, the 
smoke of the country went up as the 
smoke of a furnace (19:28). . . . and 
Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took 



October 1969 



89 



Sarah (20:2). . . . they will slay me for 
my wife's sake (20:11). . . . And Abra- 
ham rose up early in the morning, and 
took bread, and a bottle of water, and 
gave it unto Hagar ... and sent her 
away (21:14). . . . And Abraham re- 
proved Abimelech because of a well of 
water, which Abimelech's servants had 



Abraham's life was 
filled with "an 
incredibly severe 
time of probation...' 



violently taken away (21:25). . . . Take 
now thy son, Thine only son Isaac, 
whom thou lovest, . . . and offer him 
there for a burnt offering (22:2). . . . 
I am a stranger and a sojourner with 
you: give me a possession of a burying- 
place with you, that I may bury my 
dead (23:4)." 

Any one of these crises is enough to 
break any man's spirit. There are 
various standard lists of the classic 
"Ten Trials of Abraham," and while 
the later lists are confined to events 
mentioned in the Bible, the earlier 
ones significantly give a prominent 
place to Abraham's imprisonment in 
Mesopotamia and the attempt to sacri- 
fice him. 8 But all are agreed that 
Abraham's career was an incredibly 
severe time of probation, and that the 
problems he had to face were forced 
upon him largely by the evil times in 
which he lived. 

Signs in the Heavens: On the night 
Abraham was born, his father had a 
party to celebrate the event. As the 
guests were leaving the house very late 
at night, they were astonished at the 
sight of a great fireball that came from 
the east at great speed and broke into 
four parts as it passed overhead, the 
parts seeming to converge as it passed 
on and out of sight. There have been 
times of intensified meteoric showers 
in history, and Abraham's time seems 
to have been one of them. G. Lanczkow- 
ski has pointed out significant resem- 
blances between the Genesis account 
of the destruction of Sodom and 
Gomorrah in Abraham's day and the 
famous Egyptian tale of the ship- 
wrecked sailor, who was told by a 
great serpent how his whole race was 
wiped out by a huge flaming star that 
fell upon their island home. 10 Of this, 
G. Wainwright asks "whether the de- 
tail of. the destruction of the serpents 
may not be the romanticized record of 



an actual event," in which the island, 
which he identifies with Zeberged or 
St. John off Ras Benas, was blasted "by 
the fall of a meteorite" or by an erup- 
tion . . . not later than the XII 
Dynasty." 11 Even Jewish tradition tells 
of a time when "great dragon-like 
monsters had taken over the earth," 
until God cut them off suddenly, 12 and 
also of a "planet" that comes out of 
Scorpio and "spews gall and a drop of 
unhealthy blood that fouls the waters 
of the earth." 13 To a great comet that 
appeared periodically in the north 
"and destroyed crops and kings in East 
and West," the Greeks gave the name 
of Typhon, 11 identifying him with 
the Canaanite Resheph, the sky-god 
who came from Palestine to Egypt as a 
fiery meteorite rushing through the 
heavens 13 and whose sacred symbol was 
an iron meteorite in his shrine. 10 Now 
Resheph is closely bound up with 
Abraham, and we are told that "the 
stars fought for Abraham" the night he 
marched against the marauding kings, 
and slew his enemies "by the almighty 
power of God." 17 The Egyptians were, 
according to Wainwright, convinced 
that "destructive falls of meteorites" 
were an affliction particularly reserved 
for the wicked. 18 

It has been suggested that the re- 
markable interest in stargazing that 
meets us in the Abraham traditions 
and is so vividly brought home in the 
Book of Abraham may be the normal 
result of a period of unusual celestial 
displays. Thus the Sefer ha-Yashar re- 
ports that it was by observing the 
planets that Abraham was able to cal- 
culate that the earth itself was behav- 
ing erratically on its axis. 19 This 
misbehavior, according to the same 
source, had been apparent ever since 
the days of the Flood and the Tower, 
since when "the world no longer stood 
firm, the order of the creation having 
been altered." 19 The people of Abra- 
ham's day believed that "the heaven 
shifted once every 1656 years," and 
they devised a means to prevent this 
by building a series of towers, of which 
the great Tower was the first; for their 
folly Abraham denounced them. 20 This 
is supposed to be the first time that 
the planets had been disturbed since 
the days of Adam: "Before the Fall 
the planets moved with greater speed 
and in shorter orbits than after." 21 In 
Abraham's day, Jupiter is said to have 
changed its orbit, 22 and even the fixed 
stars were troubled: "Because men had 
perverted the order of life, God altered 
the order of nature: Sirius became ir- 
regular and two stars were removed 
from their places." 23 Egyptian observers 
seem to say that Sirius was earlier a 
variable star, "ruling all the other 
stars," wrote Horapollo, "as it changes 



its brightness." 24 We have already seen 
that Abraham's contemporaries were 
singularly devoted to the star Shagreel 
— Sirius — which they associated with 
the sun, according to the Book of 
Abraham and other sources. The great 
mural discovered in 1929 at El-Ghassul, 
thought to be one of the "Cities of 
the Plain" of Abraham's day, is domi- 
nated by a huge and impressive star 
figure that has been identified with 
both the sun and Sirius and has been 
hailed as establishing "the meeting- 
point between the two great empires 
of Egypt and Chaldaea, where celes- 
tial phenomena played such an im- 
portant role in the moral life of men." 25 
We can avoid the enticing twilight 
zone of science fiction by confining our 
conclusions to the minimal specula- 
tion — which seems quite safe — that 
unusual displays in the heavens, what- 
ever they were, belonged to the general 
disturbances of Abraham's restless 
world. 

Far more conspicuous in the reports 
are seismic and volcanic disturbances. 
When "the Lord broke down the altar 
of Elkenah, and of the gods of the 
land, and utterly destroyed them . . ." 
(Abr. 1:20), it was no doubt in the 
same manner in which he dealt with 
the proud and wicked Nephites: ". . . 
that great city Moronihah have I cov- 
ered with earth. ... I did send down 
fire and destroy them. . . ." (3 Ne. 
9:5, 11.) Just so in the days of Abra- 
ham he dealt with Sodom and 
Gomorrah, which, like the American 
cities, lay along one of the most active 
earthquake zones in the world. No 
minor catastrophe or the death of a 
single haughty priest would have 
caused "great mourning in Chaldea, 
and also in the court of Pharaoh." 
(Abr. 1:20.) The overthrow of the 
altar and the wide destruction are 
confirmed by the legends. Just as 
Abraham prayed on the altar, "there 
was a violent upheaval of the heavens 
and the earth and the mountains and 
all the creatures in them. . . ." 26 An 
older account, the Pseudo-Philo, says 
that "God sent a great earthquake, 
and the fire gushed forth of the furnace 
and brake out into flames and sparks 
of fire and consumed all them that 
stood around about . . . 83,500 of them. 
But upon Abraham there was not any 
least hurt by the burning of the fire." 27 
The attempted sacrifice is sometimes 
placed at the site of the Tower, in 
northern Mesopotamia, where the rites 
are interrupted "by a vast burst of 
roaring flame," which destroys many 
people and saves Abraham, but does 
not bring the people to repentance. 28 
The traditions consistently associate 
earthquakes with fires bursting from 
the earth, as at Sodom and Gomorrah, 



90 



Improvement Era 



which were overthrown while fire en- 
veloped them from above and below 
(see Gen. 19:24-25): "the rivers of the 
region turned to bitumen, we are told, 
and the ground became sulphurous and 
burned, while the five cities on their 
elevations were all toppled over." 2 " 
Earthquakes, fumeroles, fissures, rum- 
blings, sulphurous smells, etc., all go 
together in the story, as they do in 
nature. 30 "For 52 years," according to 
a well-known tradition, "God warned 
the godless" by a series of preliminary 
rumblings and quakings; "he made 
the mountains to quake and tremble, 
but they hearkened not to the voice of 
admonition." 31 The last 25 years were 
particularly ominous, with the earth 
subsiding and quaking almost continu- 
ally. 32 All through the life of Abra- 
ham, even before the fall of the Cities 
of the Plain, we meet with earthquakes. 

The Abraham cycle includes the tra- 
dition that one-third of the Tower 
was swallowed up by the earth and 
one-third was burned by fire from 
heaven. 33 The Pearl of Great Price 
itself tells us that when Enoch led the 
people of God against their enemies, 
"the earth trembled, and the mountains 
fled . . . and the rivers of water were 
turned out of their course; and the roar 
of the lions was heard out of the 
wilderness, and all nations feared. . . ." 
(Moses 7:13.) The Jewish tradition is 
that in the days of "Enos," when men 
started to worship idols, the mountains 
on which men once farmed became 
broken up, rocky, and no longer 
arable. 34 The passage from the Book 
of Moses reads like an accurate de- 
scription of the great Assam earthquake 
of 1955 — including even the "roar of 
lions . . . out of the wilderness." When 
Abraham's grandfather Nahor was 70 
and his people had become confirmed 
idol worshipers, there was another great 
earthquake, so violent that all the 
people fell down unconscious — but for 
all that they only increased in their 
wickedness. 35 

One of the best-known stories of the 
childhood of Abraham tells how the 
boy's father, out of patience with his 
son's lack of respect for the king's claim 
to divinity, took him to the palace for 
a personal interview with Majesty, 
hoping the boy would be properly im- 
pressed. Just as the father and son 
entered the throne room, there was a 
short and violent earthquake, which 
shook the throne and threw all the 
courtiers off their feet. This shattered 
their dignity, and the king, impressed 
by the coincidence of the tremor with 
the appearance of Abraham, cried, 
"Truly thy God, Abraham, is a great 
and mighty god, and he is the King 
of all Kings." 36 In another version it 
is Pharaoh's palace that is shaken by 



an earthquake while Abraham is visit- 
ing there. 37 Carrying things to ex- 
tremes, the Apocalypse of Abraham 
reports that when as a youth he was 
one day leaving his father's house, 
"there-was a great clap of thunder, fire 
fell from heaven and burned up Thera, 
his house and all that was in it for 
40 ells around." 38 This seems to re- 
flect the story of the death of Haran, 
who got involved with the idol wor- 
ship of his father and suffered death 
as a substitute for Abraham while try- 
ing to extinguish supernatural fires. 39 
One report has it that Nimrod sacri- 
ficed his victims in inextinguishable 
fires of petroleum, which Abraham 
nonetheless extinguished. 40 All in all, 
fire and earthquake go well together 
in the Abraham traditions: ". . . and 
the fiery furnace fell down, and Abra- 
ham was saved." 41 "In Abraham's 
day," says the Clementine Recogni- 
tions (1:32), "the world was afflicted 
by fire, which beginning at Sodom, 
threatened to destroy the entire world." 
After the destruction of Sodom and 
Gomorrah, Abraham had to leave his 
beloved Mamre, because the entire 
region had been completely blighted 
by the catastrophe. 42 All plant life was 
destroyed, and seeds transplanted from 
Sodom would not grow anywhere. 43 
No wonder Lot's daughters, hiding in 
a cave, thought they were the only 
surviving mortals. 44 "The entire land- 
scape was desolation; there were almost 
no travellers; everything stopped." 45 

Archaeology confirms the general 
picture of disaster in Abraham's time. 
"Our archaeological discoveries in the 
Negeb," wrote Nelson Glueck, "are in 
harmony with the general historical 
background of the accounts in Genesis 
12, 13 and 14." Southern Canaan right 
to Sinai is marked by many sites of 
permanent settlements and caravan 
stopping places, reminding one that 
"all the plain of Jordan . . . was well 
watered every where, before the Lord 
destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, 
even as the garden of the Lord, like 
the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto 
Zoar." (Gen. 13:10.) Then suddenly 
"all of these sites are destroyed at the 
end of the Abrahamitic period, and for 
the most part were not reoccupied ever 
again or not until at least 1000 years, 
and in most cases . . . not until 2000 
years had elapsed." 46 In Ghassul, the 
only City of the Plain that has been 
located so far, "everything was ruined 
completely by an earthquake." 47 Otto 
Eissfeldt, one of the most sober and 
cautious of scholars, believes that the 
story of Sodom is "a very obscure and 
distorted memory of a real historical 
occurrence," noting that a great earth- 
quake actually did take place at the 
southern end of the Dead Sea some- 



time in the second millennium B.C., 
and concluding that the best solution 
to the problems of the stories of Lot 
and Abraham in Genesis 19 is to regard 
them as real history. 48 While R. Graves 
and R. Patai observe that "the shallow 
basin south of the Lisan (the tongue 
of land that protrudes into the Dead 
Sea from the east) may once have 
been a plain encroached upon by salt 
water after severe earthquakes about 
1900 B.C.," they would explain away 
the fire from heaven as a description 
of "the intense summer heat." 49 An 
easier explanation would be those fires 
which, according to seismologists, are 
always the main cause of destruction 
when cities suffer earthquake. 

A century ago B. Beer listed a num- 
ber of ancient sources reporting the 
rather sudden formation of the Dead 
Sea. 50 Yet until recently scholars have 
rejected the whole story as impossible. 
"Critical scholarship," writes F. Cor- 
nelius, "insists emphatically that the 
inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah 
are purely fantasy"; yet it now appears 
that the Jordan Valley is a very active 
earthquake zone, and Cornelius calls 
attention to disturbances that afflicted 
the whole ancient world about the 
middle of the seventeenth century B.C., 
when "an enormous earthquake de- 
stroyed the Cretan palaces, Ugarit and 

Alalah VII " 51 "It is quite possible," 

he notes, "that the southern end of 
the Dead Sea, a plain which is only 
4 to 6 metres under the level of the 
sea, was formed at the time of Sodom 
and Gomorrah." Though there is no 
lava in the area, "the ignition of earth 
gases among the tarpits (Asphaltsee) is 
virtually unavoidable in an earth- 
quake," such as is described in Gene- 
sis 19. 51 A. Parrot speculates that 
"Sodom was destroyed perhaps by an 
earthquake accompanied by a sinking 
of the ground-level, which caused a 
moderate extension of the Dead Sea 
which could have submerged the 
cities." 52 He suggests that we take 
seriously the notoriously persistent 
place names of the desert, which still 
designate features of the region as "Mt. 
Sodom" (Djebel Usdum), Zoar, etc., 
remembering that St. Jerome, who lived 
in Palestine, reported that the latter 
village was actually swallowed up by 
an earthquake in his day. 52 The fate of 
Sodom and Gomorrah reminds us of 
the account in the Iliad XXI, 139-204, 
of how Hephaestus dried up the river 
Scamander and chased the Greeks out 
of the place, with a mighty flame. 53 
The fact that earthquakes of appalling 
violence have occurred within that 
very area within the last few years is a 
reminder that the disasters described, if 
not the mythical beings, who personify 
their destructive wrath, can have been 



October 1969 



91 



quite real. That such disturbances 
reached a peak in Abraham's lifetime 
is implied by the tradition that after 
him and because of him the state of 
nature has remained more stable/" 1 

Great natural disasters do not come 
singly. Earthquakes and volcanoes are 
regularly accompanied by great storms. 



The world of Abraham- 
a world of 
"earthquakes, famine, 



and trouble" 



Typhon was not only the flaming 
meteorite; he was also the bringer of 
great storms and disastrous flood, ac- 
cording to the Egyptians, while Horus 
and Osiris held back the waters and 
cleared the skies. 55 The three great 
floods of water, wind, and fire were 
assigned by the old desert sectaries to 
the times of Noah, Abraham, and Lot, 
respectively; a tradition kept alive in 
the Old Syrian Church has it that 
when the Great Wind destroyed the 
generation of the Tower, only Abra- 
ham was saved. 56 It is interesting that 
Abraham should be made the central 
figure of some of the old stories of the 
great winds, even the story of Ram 
and Rud, the righteous brothers whose 
language was not confounded at the 
Tower and who wandered back to- 
ward Eden, makes place for Abraham, 
for while Rud may be a Mandaean 
form of Jared, Ab-ram has been sug- 
gested for his brother. 57 What made it 
easy to confuse the two periods was 
the persistent report that Abraham did 
indeed have to cope with great winds 
and storms — but mostly hot winds. In 
the one hundredth year of his grand- 
father Nahor, "God opened the vessels 
of the Winds and the gate of the 
storms, and a great hurricane swept 
over the land, carrying away the idols 
and covering the settlements with 
sand-hills which remain to this day." 58 
The poetic language is remarkably like 
that of Ether 2:24, ". . . for the winds 
have gone forth out of my mouth . . ." 
but the reality of the winds is attested 
in many old Egyptian and Babylonian 
sources, such as "The Lament for Ur" 
(Abraham's city?), in which we read 
of "the evil winds of Gibil the fire- 
god . . . the great heaven-storm with its 
floods, and the hot wind that darkens 
the sky," scatters the flocks, lays bare 



the fields, and depopulates the cities 
and the holy places, "like a field deso- 
late after the harvest." 59 The Egyptians 
have left us a whole literature of 
lamentation vividly describing the 
dire circumstances that attend the hot 
desert winds and the low Niles at 
times when even the ultra-stable gov- 
ernment of Egypt was shaken to 
pieces/' Even the Flood story of the 
■ Egyptians, according to Anthes, "goes 
back to far distant climatic changing — 
not speculative, but a real experience 
of the human race." 01 The best at- 
tested account of a super-storm, how- 
ever, is found on the stele of the 
Pharaoh Amosis. In it, that monarch 
recounts in a dry, factual manner his 
tour of inspection of the disaster area: 
the face of the land was changed, a 
major valley was formed overnight, the 
land was in total darkness, so much so 
"that it was impossible to light a 
torch anywhere," and the most awe- 
some aspect of the thing was the total 
silence that met the king wherever he 
went: "the population sat in total 
silence in the east and in the west, 
after God had shown his power.'" 3 - 
Parallels to the Book of Mormon and 
Abraham 1:20 are no more striking 
than the genuinely religious interpre- 
tation that the pious Amasis puts on 
the event. 

World Food Shortage: But far more 
conspicuous in the Abraham traditions 
than the raging storms and floods is 
the blasting heat and drought that 
bring famine to the scene. In the Book 
of Abraham, the prophet, even before 
the conflict with the people of Ur of 
the Chaldees, learns from the Lord 
that there is going to be a famine in 
the land; and after his escape from the 
altar the famine descends in earnest, 
blighting the whole land of Chaldea. 
(Abr. 1:29-30.) Leaving the country, 
Abraham, as his first act on crossing 
the border into " Canaan, sacrifices to 
God, praying "that the famine might 
be turned away from my father's house, 
that they might not perish." (Abr. 
2:17.) But even in Canaan the famine 
only got worse and worse, forcing the 
patriarch to go clear to Egypt for food, 
"for the famine became very grievous." 
(Abr. 2:21.) Of the ten great famines 
to afflict the world, according to Jew- 
ish tradition, the greatest was that in 
Abraham's time, it being the first 
worldwide famine/ 13 Needless to say, 
hunger was one of the Ten Trials of 
Abraham. 04 

In the last days of Methuselah, when 
men began to apostatize and defile the 
earth and steal from one another, God 
purposely caused the harvests to fail. 05 
This tradition is clearly recalled in the 
Pearl of Great Price, Moses 8:3-4. With 
the birth of Noah, things began to im- 



prove, and Noah himself sought to 
improve conditions by inventing plows, 
sickles, axes, and other agricultural 
machinery. 60 Next, when men re- 
verted to evil "during the time of the 
scattering from the Tower, the time 
of God's wrath, it did not rain" — the 
great winds were dry winds. 07 In the 
"Lament for Ur" we are told how "the 
good storm, Nannaer, is driven out of 
the land, and the people are scattered. 
. . . everywhere corpses lie withering 
in the sun; many die of hunger; the 
heat is unbearable; all government 
collapses, parents desert their chil- 
dren. . . ," os Kenan, the son of Enos, is 
said to have recorded the great famine 
that followed the preaching of his 
father. 00 Then in the days of Terah, 
just before the birth of Abraham, 
"Mastema [Satan] sent ravens and 
birds" and by the starving birds the 
people were robbed of their grain and 
fruit and "reduced ... to destitution." 70 
So we find Abraham at the age of 
four (some say 15) driving the birds 
from the fields, but politely explain- 
ing the situation to them and reaching 
an amicable understanding as he does 
so. 71 All his life he is escaping from 
heat, drought, and hunger, or helping 
others to escape from them. Every- 
where he goes he digs wells and plants 
trees (most of which perish); 72 he in- 
vents important improvements in agri- 
cultural machinery and methods, 73 
and distributes food wherever he can. 74 
He undertakes search-and-rescue mis- 
sions for wanderers in the desert when 
"it was as hot as the day of judgment, 
God having released the fires of hell" 
on the earth, 75 and tangles with 
marauding bands "amidst dust and 
stubble." 76 But above all it is in a 
ritual capacity that Abraham is in- 
volved in the business of checking heat 
and drought. This may seem very 
strange until we realize that the 
running of the waters and the temper- 
ing of the blasting heat is the Haupt- 
motiv of the great yearly ritual 
assemblies of Abraham's day from one 
end to the other of the inhabited 
world. 77 The Book of Abraham is 
aware of the strange system in which 
human sacrifice and famine are closely 
connected. The ancients, though they 
knew perfectly well that it was the 
sun that dried up the earth, neverthe- 
less attributed the most deadly heat 
and drought to the Dog-star, Sirius, 
who in Abraham's day was propitiated 
with "the thank-offering of a child," 
as "the god of Shagreel." (Abr. 1:10, 
9.) It was when famine prevailed in 
spite of everything that Abraham's 
father decided not to make such an 
offering of his own son: "... a famine 
prevailed throughout all the land of 
Chaldea, and my father was sorely 



92 



Improvement Era 



tormented . . . and he repented of the 
evil which he had determined against 
me, to take away my life." (Abr. 1:30.) 
But Abraham's brother, Haran, died 
in the famine. (See Abr. 2:1.) We are 
not told why this was permitted while 
the rest of the family survived, but 
numerous legendary accounts have it 
that Haran died as an offering in the 
fire in the place of Abraham. 78 

As we have seen, Abraham's delivery 
from the altar in the Land of the 
Chaldees is often described as his 
escape from the fire or the furnace of 
Chaldaea, and we are told how at the 
moment he was cast from the altar into 
the flames, the latter became a lush 
and lovely garden. 79 In the most mys- 
terious episode in all his career, we 
find Abraham driving off birds of prey 
from a sacrifice while he is overcome 
with a tardema, which some scholars 
interpret as sunstroke. sn The first altar 
Abraham built, according to Abraham 
2:17, was for an offering and prayer 
"that the famine might be turned away 
from my father's house. . . ." What is 
most significant for our study is that 
the "Busiris" type of sacrifice, of which 
our Facsimile No. I is an illustration, 
has the specific object of propitiating 
the heavens in time of drought and 
famine. 81 

A World in Trouble: The great inse- 
curity of life accompanying major 
natural upheavals, when men can no 
longer count on the stability of the 
earth itself, is not without marked 
psychological effect. A basic teaching 
of the Talmud is that there is a definite 
correlation between the behavior of 
man and the behavior of nature. The 
universe is so organized, according to 
this, that when man revolts against 
God's plan of operations, to which all 
other creatures conform, he finds him- 
self in the position of one going the 
wrong way on a freeway during rush 
hours: the very stars in their course 
fight against him. The blight of nature 
follows the wickedness of man in every 
age. Thus, when Adam fell, an angel 
cut down all the trees of the Garden 
but one; when Abel was murdered, 
all the vegetation in the world withered 
until Setb was born, when it bloomed 
again; but when men started worship- 
ing idols in the time of Abraham's 
great-grandparents, "the sea rose along 
the whole eastern Mediterranean sea- 
board, flooding one-third of the land 
from Akho to Jaffa"; and when in the 
last days of Methuselah men again 
defiled the earth, God caused all the 
harvests to fail. 8 - This same philosophy 
is strikingly expressed in the Book of 
Moses of the Pearl of Great Price, es- 
pecially in the seventh chapter, where 
we even hear the earth itself, personi- 
fied as "the mother of men," weeping 



for the wickedness of her children 
that have defiled her. (Moses 7:48.) It 
was because of wickedness among the 
people that the birds came to destroy 
their crops when Abraham was a 
child. 83 As it was in the days of Noah, 
so in the days of Abraham, a very old 
Christian writing explains, the world 
was ripe for destruction, according to 
the principle that whenever men fall 
away completely from God, destruc- 
tion must follow. 81 Indeed, the people 
had sunk so low, says one very old 
source, "that God caused their civiliza- 
tion to degenerate back to the stage of 
cave-dwelling, and brought Abraham 
out of the land." 8 "' 

After the Flood, men were haunted 
by an understandable feeling of inse- 
curity, to overcome which they under- 
took tremendous engineering projects; 
among these was the famous tower, 
which was to be the symbol of man's 
ultimate mastery of nature, being so 
ingeniously designed and solidly con- 
structed as to be absolutely safe against 
flood, fire, and earthquake. Within 
the walls of the tower was to be stored 
the sum total of man's knowledge of 
the physical universe, enabling him to 
meet and master any situation that 
might arise — "and it was all done out 
of fear of another flood!" 80 A great 
economic boom and commercial ex- 
pansion enabled them to undertake 
"all kinds of engineering projects for 
controlling a dangerous nature, but the 
Lord fooled them by altering the course 
of nature and creation." 87 That was in 
Abraham's day: the Nimrod legends are 
full of marvelous gadgets and structures 
— super-buildings, mechanical thrones 
and altars, flying machines, and what- 
not. It was a time of great scientific 
and technological progress — -the Abra- 
ham stories, ' including the Book of 
Abraham, are unique in their concern 
for a scientific understanding of the 
cosmos, as against a purely religious 
and moral teaching — but toppling on 
the edge of destruction: those hot winds 
were breathing down everybody's neck. 

In desperation, men turned to wor- 
shiping idols. Why idols, of all things, 
in a scientific age? It was "because 
in the whole world the people were 
without a teacher or a lawgiver or any 
one who could show them the way of 
truth. . . ." 8S Of course, there was 
Abraham, but they didn't want him, 
and precisely therein lay the conve- 
nience of having idols. Even when the 
boy Abraham argued with his father 
that the idols were blind, dumb, and 
helpless, as any one could see, and 
therefore could not possibly help 
others, Terah stuck to his idol busi- 
ness. The one salient, outstanding, 
universal, undeniable characteristic of 
all idols is their utterly passive help- 



lessness; and if men persist in worship- 
ing them, it cannot be in spite of that 
quality, but because of it. The sophis- 
ticated people of Abraham's time 
wanted the sanction of holy beings 
which at the same time were one 
hundred percent compliant with their 
own interests and desires, just as 
people today search out those scrip- 
tures which support their interests and 
push the rest aside. As Brigham Young 
pointed out time and again, the en- 
listing of systematic piety in the in- 
terest of private greed and ambition is 
the very essence of idolatry. 89 We can 
believe that the smart and cynical 
people of Abraham's day were sincere 
and devout in their idol worship — after 
all, Abraham's own father was willing 
to put him to death in support of the 
system. 

Move On!: The Bible does not tell 
us why Abraham left Ur, 90 but the 
Book of Abraham (1:1-2) clearly im- 
plies that he found the general at- 
mosphere of Mesopotamia unbearable. 
There are indications that he was 
swept along to the west with many 
others under the pressure of world 
unrest and political crisis: "When 
you see the Powers fighting against 
each other," says the Midrash, "look 
for the feet of the Messiah. The proof 
is that in the days of Abraham, be- 
cause the great powers fought against 
each other, greatness came to Abra- 
ham." 91 Recently E. MacLaurin has 
suggested that "the advancing armies 
of the great Semitic ruler Hammurapi 
were probably the cause of departure 
from his native city of Abraham." 92 
Others emphasize religious reasons: he 
was escaping from the idolatrous rites 
and ceremonies of the fathers, accord- 
ing to Judith (5:6-8); Thera left Ur 
because he hated the atmosphere of 
the place, says Josephus (Ant. I, 152); 
and when the family moved, Abraham 
was in serious trouble with both 
Chaldeans and Mesopotamians, and 
finally had to leave the country al- 
together (I, 157). He left for the west, 
according to the Pseudo-Philo (VII, 
1-4), because his homeland had be- 
come completely degenerate, and be- 
cause he had become disgusted with 
the tower building and the whole 
business. 

The religious background of Abra- 
ham had been Babylonian, "Chaldean" 
rather than Egyptian, and that at a 
time, as F. Cornelius puts it, "when 
Babylonian religious degeneracy was 
flooding the Syrian regions." 93 It was 
to escape this spreading miasma, some 
have maintained, that Abraham fled 
to the purer air of the west. 94 While 
on a return visit to Haran after 15 
years in Canaan, according to one 
story, Abraham was terribly shocked 



October 1969 



93 



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by the general immorality of the old 
home town and yearned for the simpler 
frontier life of Canaan. ' >r ' A Roman 
soldier with a keen eye and a sound 
head has left us a description of the 
hot, sultry, mosquito- and lion-ridden 
district of Harran, with its voluptuous, 
rich, carefree, immoral inhabitants, 
and though his account is as far re- 
moved from Abraham's day as it is 
from our own, still this particular 
corner of the "unchanging East" has 
indeed remained unchanged even down 
to our times, as A. Parrot has strikingly 
demonstrated. 90 The ancient Ur to the 
south has been described by its 
excavators in much the same terms as 
are the great contemporary cities of the 
Indus Valley by their discoverers: they 
were depressing places to live — huge, 
ugly, monotonous, geometrical, rich, 
sultry, joyless metropolises. 

But Abraham's Canaan did not offer 
escape for long. The fabulous pros- 
perity of the cities of the Plain turned 
them too into little Babylons. 97 The 
only "city of the Plain" yet discovered, 
El-Ghassul, displays astonishing luxury 
and sophistication, the style being 
Babylonian rather than Egyptian, and 
apparently "already in a state of de- 
cadence" just before its destruction by 
an earthquake. 9S 

Some have explained Abraham's de- 
parture to the west simply as a test — 
he migrated because God told him to 
do so. m> If it was a test, it was a severe 
one: Professor Albright has recently 
pointed out that the ancient pioneers, 
far from finding a Golden West await- 
ing them, were "ethno-political in- 
truders in the West," 100 and as such 
"were not well received but were 
closely watched and were usually 
driven away by the local inhabitants, 
who bitterly resented any attempt on 
the part of outsiders to move in and 
take over their fields or pastures." 101 
Even in Canaan, moreover, the Baby- 
lonian threat followed the Patriarch, 
who was forced to leave Damascus, 
according to a very ancient source, 
because of military and political pres- 
sure from the East. 10 - In Canaan, 
Abraham's nephew Lot, catching the 
spirit of the times, declared that he 
preferred suburban Sodom to the so- 
ciety of his uncle, saying, "I want 
neither Abraham nor his God!" and 
moving down into the crowded and 
prosperous plain. 103 O 

(To be continued) 

FOOTNOTES 

1 W. F. Albright, Yahwch and the Gods of 
Canaan (University of London: The Athlone 
Press, 1968), pp. 56f. 

2 M. J. bin Gorion, Sagen der Judcn, I, 333. 

3 We have discussed the reality of such a 
"fall" in Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 19 
(1966), pp. 600f, 628-29. The specific men- 



tion of thistles, thorns, and dust in Gen. 3:17-19 
is a clear indication of drought conditions. 

4 Bin Gorion, S.d.J., I, 186. 

5 Albright, op. cit., p. 86. We discussed this 
in The World of the Jaredites. 

aMidrash Rabbah, XXXII, 11 (H. Freed- 
man's trsl., I, 256). 

i F. Bohl, Zeitalter Abrahams, pp. 35f. 

SB. Beer, Leben Abraham's (Leipzig, 1859), 
pp. 190ff; J. Goldin, Rabbi Nathan, p. 132; 
T. Boehl, loc. cit.; the older list is in G. Fried- 
lander, Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer, Ch. 26, pp. 
187-92. 

o Sefer ha-Yashar 18a-20b, and b. Gorion, 
S.d.J., II, 26-28. 

io G. Lanczkowski, in Ztsch. d. dt. Morgen- 
laendische Ges., Vol. 105 (1955), pp. 257f. 

11 G. A. Wainwright, in Journal of Egyptian 
Archaeology, Vol. 32 (1946), p. 285. 

12 B. Gorin, S.d.J., I, 12. 

13 Ibid., II, 310. 

14 Hephaestius of Thebes, Astrologia, XXIV, 
in T. Hopfner, Pontes Hist. Relig. Aegypt., 
p. 562. 

15 G. Wainwright, in Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol. 18 
(1932), p. 161. 

16 Ibid., p. 160, and in Ztschr. f. Aeg. 
Sprache, Vol. 71 (1935), p. 44. 

17 Beer, op. cit., p. 30. 

18 In Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol. 18, p. 166. 

19 Bin Gorion, S.d.J., II, 185. 

20 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, pp. 396f; R. 
Eisler, Icsous Rasileus (Heidelberg, 1930), 
Vol. 2, p. 108. 

21 Bin Gorion, I, 104. 

22 ". . . shifting its position from west to 
east," whatever that means; Ibid., II, 185. 

23 Ibid., I, 206. 

24 Horapollo, Hieroglyph. I, 3. Eratosthenes 
says Sirius gets its name from the fact that 
its brightness changes (dia ten phlogos kine- 
sin . . . ) , which can hardly refer to twinkling, 
since other stars twinkle just as much, T. 
Hopfner, Fontes Hist. Relig. Aegypt., p. 760. 

25 A. Mallon, in Melanges Maspero, I, i, 59. 

26 Tha'labi, Qissas al-Anbiyah (Cairo, 1340 
A.H.), p. 54. 

27 Biblical Antiquities of Philo, VI, 17. 

28 L. Cohn, in Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 
10, p. 286. 

29 Bin Gorion, S.d.J., II, 238. 
ho Cohn, op. cit., pp. 288f. 

31 L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 1, 
p. 253. 

32 Beer, op. cit., p. 41. 

33 Ibid., p. 9, n. 84, for sources; also bin 
Gorion, II, 59; Sefer ha-Yashar, Ch. 22-31; 
B. Sanh. 109a; P. R. Eliezer, Ch. 24. 

34 Bin Gorion, I, 154. 

35 The Cave of Treasures, 25:17. 

36 Bin Gorion, II, 45. In some legends God 
shakes and even overthrows the throne of Nim- 
rod as a warning, without any mention of 
Abraham, H. Schuetzinger, Ursprung der 
arab. Abraham-Nimrod Legende (Bonn, 1961), 
p. 74. 

37 G. Weil, Biblische Legenden der Musel- 
maenner (Frankfort, 1845), p. 59. 

38 Apocalypse of Abraham, 8:7. 

39 He was consumed by fire from heaven 
while Abraham was saved, Beer, pp. 16-17, 
cit. S. ha-Yashar; a fragment of Josephus says 
that he was killed trying to put out the flames 
that were destroying his father's idols and 
house, R. Eisler, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 523. 

40 Schuetzinger, op. cit., p. 100. 

41 Pseudo-Philo, VI, 18. The two pheonomena 
meet most dramatically in volcanic activity. The 
Egyptians have much to say about "the fire- 
island that emerged from the waters" at the time 
Egypt was first settled— perhaps a volcanic 
island emerging from the Mediterranean, G. 
Roeder, Egyptian Religion, Vol. I, p. 10. 

42 Beer, op. cit., p. 165. 
13 Bin Gorion, II, 238. 

4t Gen. 19:30-31; bin Gorion, S.d.J., II, 
239f. 

15 Beer, op. cit., p. 44. Also at the attempted 
sacrifice of Abraham, fire burned all the birds 
and made all the surrounding region desolate, 
Tha'albi, loc. cit. 

46 N. Glueck, in Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, Vol. 100 (1956), 
pp. 150f. 

47 A. Mallon, in Melanges Maspero, I, i, 57. 

48 O. Eissfeldt, in Ex Oriente Lux, Vol. 17 
(1963), pp. 163-64. 

4 9 R. Graves and R. Patai, Hebrew Mythology, 
p. 169. 

50 Beer, op. cit., p. 137. 

51 F. Cornelius, in Ztsch. f. Alt Test. Wiss., 
Vol. 72 (1960), pp. 5-6. 

52 A. Parrot, AJiraham et son Temps (Paris, 
1962), p. 105, n. 3. 

53 Apollodorus, Epist., IV, 1. 



Improvement Era 



~>-i Zohar, Lech Lecha. 86b. 

• r .c Plutarch, de Iside, 39-40. 

we R. Eisler, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 109. 

57 hoc, cit., n. 9. Interestingly enough, one 
of the most important accounts of the wind- 
flood recounts that there were no inhabitants 
in the Near East before the time of Noah, the 
world's population dwelling ' far to the east- 
ward near the region of Eden, Cave of 
Treasures, 26:15, 17. To this area, according 
to the Ram and Rud story of the Mandaeans, 
Jared and his brother returned. 

ns Cave of Treasures, 26:11. 
. no M. Witzel, in Orientalia, Vol. 14 (1945), 
pp. 188-90,. noting that this must be descrip- 
tive of a real historical event. 

00 H. Kees, in Orientalia, Vol. 21 (1952), 
pp. 86-97; E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Hieratic 
Papyri in the British Museum, 1923, p. 19. 

61 R. Anthes, in Mitt. d. Dt. Or. Ges., Vol. 
96 (1942), p. 18. 

02 C. Vandersleye, in Revue d'Egyptologie, 
Vol. 19 (1967), pp. 133, 155-57; quote is 
from 140. 

03 Different lists (but both including famine) 
in A. Wuensche, Midrasch Rabbah, p. 182, 
and L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 1, 
p. 221. 

04 P. R. Eliezer, Ch. 26; bin Gorion II, 159. 
G5 Bin Gorion, I, 174; cf. Helaman 11 :4f£. 
GQlbid., I, 176. 

67 Ibid., II, 83. 

os M. Witzel, op. cit., p. 190. 

00 Bin Gorion, I, 154. Among the oldest 
and most vivid products of Egyptian art are 
the famine reliefs from the III Dynasty, show- 
ing the horribly emaciated condition of the 
people. 

70 Jubilees 11:11-13. 

7lJ. Bergmann, Legenden der Juden, p. 58. 
Bar Hebraeus, Chronography (Budge), Vol. 1, 
p. 10, says he was 15 when he drove off the 
qarqase (ravens? locusts?) who were eating 
all the crops of the Chaldeans. 

72 Jubilees 24:18; bin Gorion, II, 272; Book 
of Lights. 

73 Jubilees 11:21, 23. 

74 Book of Jasher, 22:11-12. 

75 Bin Gorion, II, 198. 

76 W. Braude, Midrash Ps. 110:2. 

77 H. Nibley, in Western Political Quarterly, 
Vol. 4 (1951), pp. 226-30, 235-38. 

78 Eisler, op. cit., I, 523. 

79 E.g. A. Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrasch, I, 34. 
cf. 32. 

80 Gen. 15:9-15; Josephus, J. Ant., I, 185. 
On tardema, A. Caquot, in Semitica, 12. 

81 This is well treated in A. Moret, La Mise 
a Mart due Dieu in Egypte (Paris: Geuthner, 
1927). Cf. J. Berard, in Rev. de I'Hist. des 
Religions, Vol. 151 (1957), pp. 228-230. 

82 These episodes are described, with the 
sources in bin Gorion, S.d.J. I, 317, 151, 153, 
174. 

83 Jubilees 11:13. 

84 Clementine Recognitions I, 29-33. 

85 Pseudo-Philo, VII, 1. 

86 Bin Gorion, II, 64, 48. 

87 Ibid., I, 196. 

88 Cave of Treasures, 25:8-9. 

89 E. g., Journal of Discourses, Vol. 5 ( 1857), 
p. 353. 

90 N. H. Segal, in Jewish Quarterly Review, 
Vol. 52 (1961-2), p. 45. 

91 Midr. Rab., Gen. 42:4. The Lord "was 
chosen by our father Abraham when the na- 
tions were divided in the time of Phaleg . . ." 
Test, of Naphthali 8:3 (in R. H. Charles, 
Apoc. ir Pseudepigr. of the Old Testament, II, 
363). 

92 E. MacLaurin, in Journal of Religious His- 
tory, Vol. 2 (1963), p. 278. 

93 F. Cornelius, in Ztschr. f. A.T. Wiss., 
Vol. 72 (1960), p. 7. 

94Chwolsohn, Die Sabaecr, I, 620. 

95 Midr. Rab., Gen. 39:8; L. Ginzberg, op. 
cit., Vol. 1, p. 219; Beer, op. cit., p. 23. 

90 Ammianus Marcelinus, Hist., XVIII, 7, 
5; A. Parrot, Abraham et son Temps— sec espe- 
cially the illustrations. 

97 M. C. Astour, in A. Altmann, Biblical 
Motifs (Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 74, 

98 A. Mallon, in Melanges Maspero, I, i, 57f. 

99 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 218. 

100 W. F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods 
of Canaan, p. 93. 

101 Ibid., p. 57. This applies whether Abra- 
ham was a caravaneer or shepherd: "The life of 
wandering shepherds was anything but pleasant." 
hoc. cit. 

102 Eusebius, Praep. Evangel., IX, 16; cf. 
Josephus, Ant',, I, 159, who says that Abraham's 
house in Damascus was still being pointed out 
in his day. 

103 Midr. Rab., Gen. 41. 



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